Explain principles of care for clients with oncological disorders.

Anna is a 45-year-old female that presented to her physician’s office for her annual check-up. Anna has a history of diabetes, obesity, and noncompliance with diet and medications to control her diabetes. She a single mother of three teenagers and smokes regularly. During the history review, Anna shares with you that she has not been feeling like herself for the past six months, she has been unusually tired and thought that she felt a lump in her right breast during a self-breast exam around that same time. She stated, “I am very busy with my children; I haven’t had time to get it checked out.” She has recently been experiencing right nipple pain. Anna has a positive family history of breast cancer; both her mother and grandmother have been treated for breast cancer. Anna has never had a mammogram. During the breast examination, the practitioner palpated a lump in Anna’s right breast. No discharge from the nipple was observed. Anna’s right breast was tender upon palpation. No abnormalities were found in the left breast. Based on the physical findings Anna will undergo a diagnostic mammogram.

In a 2-page paper, describe the care that Anna would require and address the questions below.
1. What risk factors does Anna have that could predispose her to the development of cancer?
2. What signs and symptoms could indicate that Anna has developed cancer?
3. Based on Anna’s risk factors and presenting problems, identify three care strategies that you would use to provide quality care to Anna. Provide rationale to explain why you chose these strategies.

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Anna has several risk factors that could predispose her to the development of cancer. These risk factors include a positive family history of breast cancer, being a female, increasing age, smoking, and being overweight or obese. Additionally, Anna’s history of diabetes and non-compliance with her diet and medications could also increase her risk of developing cancer.

Anna has several signs and symptoms that could indicate that she has developed cancer, including fatigue, the presence of a lump in her right breast, right nipple pain, and tenderness in her right breast upon palpation. These symptoms could be indicative of breast cancer and would warrant further investigation through diagnostic testing such as a mammogram.

Three care strategies that would be used to provide quality care to Anna are:

a. Early Detection and Screening: One of the most important strategies for preventing and detecting cancer is to undergo regular screening tests. Since Anna has never had a mammogram and has several risk factors for breast cancer, it is important for her to undergo a diagnostic mammogram to determine the presence of any suspicious areas in her breast tissue.

b. Health Education: It is important to educate Anna about her risk factors and the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle to reduce her risk of developing cancer. This includes educating her about the importance of maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and adhering to a healthy diet and exercise routine.

c. Multidisciplinary Care Team: A multidisciplinary care team, including a primary care physician, oncologist, and other specialists such as a dietitian, social worker, and psychologist, would be involved in providing care to Anna. This team would work together to develop a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses all of Anna’s needs and helps her to manage her cancer diagnosis and its impact on her life.

The rationale for choosing these strategies is that early detection and screening are crucial in detecting cancer in its early stages, when it is more treatable. Health education is important in reducing Anna’s risk of developing cancer and can also help her to make informed decisions about her health. The multidisciplinary care team approach is important in addressing all of Anna’s needs and helping her to manage her cancer diagnosis in a holistic and comprehensive manner.