Assignment Details Approaches to Treatment-Summer 2023
Address the following Short Answer prompts for your Assignment. Be sure to include references to the Learning Resources for this week.
1. In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples. 2. Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions): o What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures? o Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction? o What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?
3. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples. 4. The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific. 5. In 3-5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples.

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The neuron is the basic unit of the nervous system. It is made up of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon. The cell body contains the nucleus and other organelles. The dendrites are short, branching fibers that receive information from other neurons. The axon is a long, thin fiber that carries information away from the cell body. When a neuron is stimulated, an electrical impulse travels down the axon. This impulse causes the release of neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that bind to receptors on other neurons. The binding of neurotransmitters to receptors causes a new electrical impulse to be generated in the receiving neuron. This process continues until the information reaches its destination.

The major components of the subcortical structures are the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. The thalamus is a relay station that receives information from the senses and sends it to the cortex. The hypothalamus is involved in a variety of functions, including body temperature regulation, hunger, thirst, and emotions. The amygdala is involved in processing emotions, such as fear and anger. The hippocampus is involved in memory formation and consolidation.

Glia cells are non-neuronal cells that support and protect neurons. They perform a variety of functions, including providing nutrients to neurons, removing waste products, and forming myelin sheaths around axons. Myelin sheaths insulate axons and help to speed up the transmission of electrical impulses.

The synapse is the area between two neurons where chemical communication takes place. The axon of one neuron releases neurotransmitters into the synapse. These neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the dendrites of the other neuron. The binding of neurotransmitters to receptors causes a new electrical impulse to be generated in the receiving neuron.

Neuroplasticity is the ability of the nervous system to change and adapt. This can happen in response to experience, injury, or disease. Neuroplasticity is thought to be responsible for learning, memory, and recovery from injury.

Here are some examples of neuroplasticity:

When you learn a new skill, the connections between neurons in your brain change. This allows you to perform the skill more easily over time.
When you experience a traumatic event, the connections between neurons in your brain can also change. This can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
After a stroke, the brain can reorganize itself to compensate for the damage. This can lead to improved function.
Neuroplasticity is a complex process that is still not fully understood. However, it is clear that the brain has the ability to change and adapt, even in adulthood. This ability is essential for learning, memory, and recovery from injury.

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