AUTISM INTERVENTION REVIEW INSTRUCTIONS
Being able to identify, critically review and appropriately apply evidenc-based interventions is a critical aspect of special education. For this assignment, you will practice this review process. You are to select 1 intervention from the Autism Interventions document and complete a critical review of the strengths and weaknesses of the intervention and its generalized value to children or adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This review must include the following:
1. An introduction that outlines your personal philosophy of education and alignment with your selected intervention.
2. A description of the intervention, including strengths and weaknesses with references to support;
3. A critical review of the perceived effectiveness of the intervention with references to support the evaluation of effectiveness. Address if this intervention is considered to be scientifically-based practice, a promising practice, or supported with limited research practice;
4. A specific profile of a child with ASD who might respond best to this intervention with an explanation of why.
5. 5–8 questions you would pose to help families and other team members decide or whether or not this intervention method is appropriate for a child with ASD;
6. A personal reflection response to your review discussing your personal opinion and beliefs about this intervention.
The Intervention Review assignment must be between 5–8 pages, including introductory and closing paragraphs. Additionally a title page and reference page must be included which will not be counted towards the 5–8-page length requirement. You must cite at least 6 references. Two of these references must be the course textbook and the Bible. Additional references may include other texts on autism or peer-reviewed articles. References should be in current APA format.
Autism Intervention Review
Autism intervention attempts to reduce the deficits and the behavioral problems associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The purpose is to increase the independence and value of the life of a person with autism. Autism affects the social interaction and communication skills making it hard to communicate in words, facial expression or gestures. Applied Behavioral Analysis is used as an intervention in the treatment of autism. The goal of Applied Behavioral Analysis is to enhance the helpful behaviors and suppress harmful practices using reward and consequence approach. My philosophy of education is that learning should improve the independence of an individual. In special education, the philosophy is to provide the students with personal choices and providing them with training to make the right choices. I believe that students with disabilities have the same protections and rights as students without disabilities. Additionally, I believe that people with disabilities may express various strengths and weaknesses. My philosophy is thus to empower the students through special education to make them independent individuals. The autism treatment approach is effective when the right intervention and education philosophy is applied.
Applied Behavioral Analysis
Applied Behavioral Analysis is an autism treatment approach which states that desired behaviors are learned through a system of rewards and consequences. It focuses on enhancing communication skills, improving attention, memory and social skills, and reducing the harmful behaviors. Applied Behavioral Analysis is useful since it teaches skills that are required daily (Roane, Fisher & Carr, 2016). It can be applied in schools or at home, and it can be customized to address the specific needs of an individual. The approach argues that rewards encourage a person to repeat positive behavior and thus promoting positive behavior change (Sturmey & Williams, 2016). The reward must be meaningful to the student such as a book, video or access to a playground. On the other hand, when a student knows of the consequences of negative actions, they will avoid them. For example, if a child knows that toys will be taken away or the television will be switched off if they do not comply, they will strive to adopt the desired behaviors. The intervention applies to individuals of all ages since it can be customized to specific needs.
Strengths and Weaknesses
Applied Behavioral Analysis has various strengths that have been proven through various empirical studies. The intervention can help children to acquire new behavior since it enhances social skills and intellectual abilities (Sturmey & Williams, 2016). It is thus used to help children adjust their behavior to normal life. It can be used to modify the emotional and social aspect of a child by boosting emotional aptitude. When the emotional and social skills are enhanced, a student can match with their peers. The intervention is helpful since it keeps students in schools. Studies confirm that the application of the approach improves the performance of the students. The students behave normally like their peers in school, and at home, they express a positive change in their behavior (Roane, Fisher & Carr, 2016). When the approach is applied early in a child, there is a high chance of fast recovery. It helps improve communication skills such as non-verbal communication and receptive language. It is preferable since, after the intervention, students achieve better results during Intellectual Quotient tests.
Applied Behavioral Analysis has several weaknesses including time commitment. The intervention requires between 25-40 hours every week, which can be exhausting due to other commitments in school or time with the family. The parents are involved in the treatment process since they will be useful in helping the child to adapt to normal life (Sturmey & Williams, 2016). One of the parents or both must commit to being available during the interventions. Additionally, the treatment may take a long time until it establishes a life pattern of a normal life. Parents will thus forego other busy schedules to be available for their child. On the other hand, the cost of treatment may be high since it can range from $16,000 to $25,000 per year. The price may even go high depending on other factors. Parents who are not financially stable may not afford the treatment. The intervention relies on rewards to promote the desired behavior (Roane, Fisher & Carr, 2016). Children with autism are picky about the rewards that they accept. Therefore, in the initial stages, the parents have to work together with the therapist to identify the various rewards that are effective to stimulate desire behavior. A therapist must strive to minimize the negative weaknesses of the applied behavioral analysis to make it effective.
Various scientific studies have indicated that Applied Behavioral Analysis is a crucial intervention for students with autism. The various studies focused on the application of the intervention on two-year-old children with autism. The children displayed severe speech delays. When the children completed the therapy, the standard score improved drastically (Huang, Hughes, Sutton, Lawrence, Chen, Ji & Zeleke, 2017). Additionally, the children portrayed improved vocal and gestural communication plus social skills both at home and in school. Studies have shown that when the intervention is applied to children at a young age, they have high chances of developing the desired behaviors such as non-verbal communication skills (Goldstein & Ozonoff, 2018). Therefore, the intervention is scientifically proven to be a practical approach in dealing with children with autism. Parents whose children have been treated have indicated significant changes have occurred in the lives of children (Huang et al., 2017). They noted that the children could now ask questions, which was rare before the therapy. Other parents have indicated that their children are now aware of their mistakes or actions after the treatment. Therefore, Applied Behavioral Analysis is an effective and scientifically-proven approach to treat autism.
Profile of a Child with ASD
The person is a four-year-old boy with autism. The parents detected the possibility of autism a few months before his fourth birthday. The child has poor social interaction with other children or adults. The behavior of the boy is to remain silent in the company of other children or adults. He has an unusual interest in various objects at home, in the car or in public. Additionally, he has irregular sleeping patterns and emotional reaction when he is restricted from touching toys or objects that can harm him. The child is unable to quickly respond to changes. He insists on sticking to one activity or behavior for a long time. He has severe difficulty in communication and gestural skills. His peers have developed communication skills such as greetings while the boy seems to be lagging.
The Applied Behavioral Analysis can be used to treat the condition of the boy. The intervention employs rewards and consequences to promote desired behavior and suppress unwanted characters. It will help the boy to develop a habit of easily changing routine when he knows the negative consequences that may follow. The intervention will help the child to boost his emotional aptitude, which is crucial in regulating emotional reaction to situations (Huang et al., 2017). For example, he will understand the time to play, eat or sleep through the reward and consequences. The child will learn social interaction since his social and communication skills will improve through the Applied Behavioral Analysis. The consequences introduced during the therapy sessions will teach the boy that some objects can be harmful and should be avoided or handled with care. Therefore, the Applied Behavioral Analysis intervention will be helpful in addressing various issues the boy is going through.
Questions to Help Families
Families and team members can examine the helpfulness of the intervention based on various questions. The first question is whether the approach is scientifically proven or not. The question would trigger the family and the team members to determine if the approach has been used before successfully or not. It would also involve checking if there are scientific studies that show the efficiency of Applied Behavioral Analysis. The second question is on whether it would promote independent living skills such as sleeping throughout the night. The third question is whether the approach would involve both parents, teachers and the concerned child. Autism requires a child to develop lifetime patterns, and thus it demands the participation of various stakeholders. The fourth question is whether the approach would address social issues the boy is going through. The fifth question is whether the intervention would help the child to live a typical life and relate with other people normally. The various questions would help establish the eligibility of the Applied Behavioral Analysis intervention.
Applied Behavioral Analysis is an essential approach to treat autism. Students with autism have various problems at home and in schools. Therefore, I believe parents should hire a therapist who understands Applied Behavioral Analysis. The therapy sessions may take a long time, but they will be fruitful in the end. I am confident that autism should not be a life-long problem, but it can be fixed using an effective intervention. Although it will take a long time to fix the essay help problem, it is essential for parents to enroll their children in such therapy sessions. Applied Behavioral Analysis is crucial for children at a young age since their minds are learning various lessons on dos and don’ts. It will employ multiple consequences to show the negative outcomes of various actions. Therefore, children will learn how to avoid some actions such as putting their fingers in hot water or on fire. It is thus easier to teach children when to abandon the toys and start eating or go to bed. Additionally, it will teach them social and communication skills. In my opinion, the rewards offered will be useful in creating behavioral changes that will last a lifetime. Children between 4-7 years will be excited by rewards such as toys, sweets or television and thus making it applicable for children. I believe parents should commit themselves to the required therapy sessions to show their commitment to their children and encourage other stakeholders such as teachers or a therapist. They should love all children equally and help them to overcome their challenges (Holy Bible, 2017). In my view, the approach is effective since it has been scientifically to be reliable and thus should be used to overcome autism.
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a curable condition if the appropriate interventions are applied. It limits the social, communication and gestural skills of a child. The condition can be treated using Applied Behavioral Analysis intervention. The intervention employs rewards and consequences to promote good behavior and suppresses negative actions. It applies to children since they are in the stage of learning how to interact with people. The approach has various strengths and weaknesses. However, it remains applicable and scientifically proven to be an effective intervention of dealing with autism. The approach has been identified as a reliable solution for children with autism. It requires many hours daily making it crucial for parents to devote themselves to be present during the therapy sessions. Therefore, Applied Behavioral Analysis is helpful in treating Autism Spectrum Disorder, and it helps children to live normal lives.
Axelrod, S., McElrath, K. K., & Wine, B. (2012). Applied behavior analysis: Autism and beyond. Behavioral Interventions, 27(1), 1-15.
Goldstein, S., & Ozonoff, S. (Eds.). (2018). Assessment of autism spectrum disorder. Guilford Publications.
Holy Bible. (2017). King James Version. Arcturus Publishing Limited.
Huang, A. X., Hughes, T. L., Sutton, L. R., Lawrence, M., Chen, X., Ji, Z., & Zeleke, W. (2017). Understanding the self in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD): A review of literature. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1422.
Roane, H. S., Fisher, W. W., & Carr, J. E. (2016). Applied behavior analysis as treatment for autism spectrum disorder. The Journal of Pediatrics, 175, 27-32.
Sturmey, P., & Williams, D. E. (2016). Biomedical and Other Treatments. In Pica in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities. Springer, Cham.
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