Analysis of Measures for the Prevention of Oil Pollution from Ships and Oil Companies

1. Introduction

Well-recognized marine pollution precautions include ensuring an effective survey and certification system, providing adequate reception facilities, and imposing stricter requirements and provisions in particularly sensitive sea areas. Over the years, there have been significant developments in relation to the establishment of particularly sensitive sea areas and the mandatory technical requirements on, such as the double-hull design and dirty ballast control. I will elaborate on the above analysis in the later chapter.

As the measures for the avoidance of marine pollution from land-based sources are mainly within the domestic legislation of each individual nation and they may vary from state to state, policy and practice; and therefore, the convention, known as the “masterpiece” of the international measures, has no effect as to the marine pollution arisen from the land-based sources. However, in general, international agreements and leading principles of the preventive approach emphasize the complete compliance of the pollution criterion throughout the design, construction, and operation of an oil tanker and others so as to maximize the protective measures.

It was believed by the drafting governments and organizations and is still being believed that with a comprehensive program in the prevention and control of marine pollution from ships, and a close control of each operational step of an oil tanker from design, building, survey to operational requirements, a uniform and effective level of protection of the environment can be achieved. Hence, IMO and its member states are promoting the application of various measures designed pursuant to the MARPOL and other relevant standards, which will be analyzed in the later sections of this study.

Also, with increasing public concern on the environment over the years and the rapid development of science and technology, more and more attention has been drawn to the prevention of pollution from other sources. As a result, the MARPOL has been modified many times and it now covers not only pollution by oil but also pollution by chemicals, harmful substances carried by sea in packaged form, sewage, and even air pollution from the exhaust gases of the ships.

In 1954, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) was established in Geneva, Switzerland as the first United Nations’ specialized agency for maritime safety. Its main role is to promote cooperation among governments and to provide the highest practicable standards in matters concerning maritime safety and efficiency of navigation and the prevention and control of marine pollution from ships. As an intergovernmental organization responsible for measures to prevent marine pollution and moreover, as the “global guardian” of the environment, the IMO has been continuing its efforts to upgrade and refine prevention and control criteria. This fact is highlighted by the continuous amendment of its famous technical regulations – the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) – since its adoption in 1973.

The measures established for the prevention of oil pollution from ships and oil companies play a key role in environmental protection worldwide. Nowadays, oil pollution has become a serious international problem. It affects not only coastal areas and marine life, but also worldwide. It’s recognized that shipping, together with land-based industrial sources, is one of the major sources of marine environment pollution by oil. Therefore, the international community is paying increasing attention to the prevention and control of oil pollution from ships.

1.1 Background

In the UK, the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) is the relevant authority that issues and manages the licensing policy for the offshore oil and gas industry, and regulated by the Petroleum Act 1998. The offshore oil and gas industry in the UK is among the most regulated industries in the world, whereas the environmental and health and safety legislation and practices are tightly imposed on the activities, including the licensing of the offshore installations, operatorship and the protection of the environment and the natural habitats.

It is interesting to find that how the technology has made the human life more convenient, but as a counterpart, it also brings a lot of unexpected problems like pollution. However, what is positive to see is that the governments and relevant authorities are well aware of the potential risk and they are taking measures to watch and handle the situation, since the preservation of the ecological system is essential for everyone on this planet.

Considering the significance of the potential pollution from offshore oil and gas activities as a result of the increased production and exploration activities in the UKCS, after a comprehensive public consultation and a strategic environmental assessment, a large number of marine licences were issued with the imposition of relevant measures to mitigate the pollution. For example, the marine licences will contain different types of environmental information, such as the type of activities that can be carried out under the licences and what measures must be imposed to mitigate the pollution. Also, periodic or continuous environmental monitoring and pollution prevention is also required under some of the marine licences, such as the monitors have to be installed to check and measure the quality of the produced water.

Just like the land-based industry, the offshore industry also releases hydrocarbons, oil, chemicals and other potential pollutants. However, compared to the onshore industry, pollution from both chronic low-level releases and the accidental releases can pose particular challenges in the offshore industry, due to the sensitivity and diversity of the marine environment.

Not only the offshore oil production is a major source of oil pollution in the marine environment, but also the day to day activities that involving the ships and vessels releases a large amount of oil into the sea. It is said that more than two thirds of the marine pollution are contributed by oil in some form, and it can be devastating to local wildlife and the natural environment. To protect the marine environment and the coastal areas, international obligations and various preventative measures have been imposed on the shipping industry to avoid oil from being released into the sea.

The offshore oil production facilities release a variety of pollutants into the marine environment, contributing to the marine environment pollution. However, with advances in techniques and technology, pollution from the offshore oil and gas industry has reduced in recent years. This is mainly due to the development of technology and the compliance with legislation to mitigate the pollution and there are a number of measures and regulations has been imposed on the offshore oil and gas industry to reduce the pollution.

There is an extensive range of technology for the extraction and production of oil. The world’s first offshore oil well was built in the Gulf of Mexico in 1949, and an ever-increasing proportion of global oil production is from offshore. As compared to the land-based oil production facilities, the offshore industry is a relatively young industry.

Oil is a versatile substance that is used widely around the world. In the modern society, the use of oil is predominantly for fuels, obtained from crude oil. It is the transport sector that is the largest consumer of oil, closely followed by the industrial sector, whereas in the domestic sector, oil is mostly used for heating purposes.

1.2 Problem Statement

Many countries are destroyed by oil pollution from ships and oil companies, as it leads to the destruction of marine life. In addition, it kills many people and some of the bodies are never found and are destroyed and it is bad for the environment. The environment is also destroyed by oil pollution from ships and oil companies, as it leads to the destruction of terrestrial ecosystems as well as the marine ecosystems. The environment, which includes the waters and the air, is also polluted by ships through the release of harmful substance to the marine environment through the discharge of non-petroleum cargo residues. Ships are also responsible for the release of harmful pollutants into the air, such as the sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, as well as the emission of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Oil pollution from oil companies can have devastating effects to society and the environment and it should not be accepted as part of the cost of economic progress. The results of oil pollution from oil companies, both large and small, cannot be ignored – the environment is destroyed, the ecosystem is affected, the wildlife is harmed, the natural beauty of the landscape is damaged and the health of individuals, including sometimes those responsible for the oil pollution, is impacted. In many ways, such type of pollution can be considered as an act of environmental terrorism. However, in order to find a solution to the problem of oil pollution from ships and oil companies, a better understanding is needed for the sources and circumstances under which the pollution arises and the existing measures in place to prevent and control such pollution. Muscat, J., Daniel, J., David, V., 2013. Kegley, J., Wittkopf, E., 2004. Kelly, D., Bauer, K., 2003. Mcevoy, T., 2014. Wikipedia: Environmental Impact of Shipping. [Link] – Date last accessed: 30th July 2017.

1.3 Objectives

The third section focuses on preventive measures for ships, such as design and construction standards, operational practices, training and certification requirements, and monitoring and reporting systems. The fourth section discusses preventive measures for oil companies, including oil spill response plans, risk assessment and management, emergency preparedness and contingency planning, and environmental management systems. Overall, the document provides a thorough analysis of the measures in place to prevent oil pollution from ships and oil companies. The main objective of the work is to analyze critically the prevention of oil pollution by ships and oil companies. The study is aimed at reviewing the prevention measures and to assess how effective are the measures being implemented and practiced. In doing so, it gives a detailed study about the various methods and practices of which certain parts are already implemented and the effectiveness of such strategies are also critically evaluated. Latest technological measures and methods are being compared with the practices and accordingly the advancements needed in the present systems are analyzed. Also a comprehensive study of the waste oil being generated have been studied and based on those statistics, measures that need to be implemented on emergency situations are also being illustrated. Furthermore, the work is important from the point of researcher. Since the project gives a wide cover on the techniques and methods being in practice, a beginner in the research on oil pollution prevention measures could get the basic principles and good understanding about the research work already done in practice so far. Also latest researches can be addressed for the improvements or to introduce new innovative methods into the study. And the study would give a good knowledge and necessary background for any laboratory experimental work too. On the other hand, the work is very much important to the people who are responsible for the daily oil handling and dozing work on ships as well as in marine environment such as to the sea water and its organisms. This would provide good guidance for the workers on various important prevention measures and will provide a good knowledge of latest innovative methods and practices too. Also the study gives a good critical method of selecting the best prevention method out of supplier’s own references. The governmental and non-governmental organizations could use the work for the policy developments and to make the regulations more comprehensive and effective.

2. Regulations and Policies

MARPOL Annex I, adopted in 1973, is concerned with oil pollution and came into force in 1983. It includes regulations for the prevention of oil pollution, such as the construction and equipment of oil tankers. A major component of Annex I in relation to an early identification of areas and risks that could lead to persistent oil pollution in the future as well as the initiation of more proactive and effective measures to protect the marine environment is the requirement for the Governments to develop and update oil …

The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) is the main international convention covering the prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes. It is a combination of two treaties adopted in 1973 and 1978 respectively and updated by amendments through the years, with the latest amendments adopted in 2017.

2.1 International Maritime Organization (IMO) Regulations

Imo is the United Nations agency that is responsible for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of marine pollution by ships. It is a particularly important international organization in this field and the measures adopted by IMO are well-regarded and actively complied with by states. There are three main IMO conventions which contain pollution prevention provisions: the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC) and the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (CLC). First, IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee has adopted MARPOL which is the most important and comprehensive international convention on marine pollution. It was designed mainly to minimize pollution of the sea by oil and other harmful substances and to decrease the air pollution from the ships. In the context of oil pollution prevention, MARPOL has set up various rules regulating different aspects including the discharge of oil, the requirement for oil filtering equipment, the capacity of oil fuel tanks, the prohibition of oil storage in double bottoms and the survey and certification of the ship’s oil filtering system. Similarly, OPRC was adopted by the diplomatic conference convened by IMO and it establishes an international framework for co-operation in combating major incidents of marine oil pollution. The main players under this convention are the coastal state, the flag state of the supporting ship and any other affected state. Each of them is under an obligation to provide response resources and other relevant information. Last but not least, CLC was adopted to ensure that adequate compensation is available to persons who suffer oil pollution damage. It has imposed strict liability on the ship owner and, except for the case of war or natural phenomenon, the ship owner will be held liable regardless of his fault. However, under certain circumstances the ship owner is entitled to limit his liability. For example, if the spill is proved to be caused by the act of the authority or the negligence of the claimant, the ship owner is allowed to escape from absolute liability. It is important to note that states are given certain degree of freedom when implementing IMO measures into their domestic legislation. For example, according to the wideness principle, only a legal principle but also a practical approach, states are encouraged to interpret and apply their domestic statutes in conformity with their international obligation in the absence of clear legislative provision. On the other hand, states are also entitled to adopt other forms of regulation or other types of convention, if they consider that they are more suitable for achieving the relevant international objective. However, the measures adopted shall be given due weight and not departing from the international standard arbitrarily. So far, over 150 states have accepted MARPOL and this convention has received global acceptance as the primary instrument for regulating ship-based pollution. The report then discusses preventive measures for ships, such as design and construction standards, operational practices, training and certification requirements, and monitoring and reporting systems. Similarly, it addresses preventive measures for oil companies, including the development of oil spill response plans, risk assessment and management, emergency preparedness and contingency planning, and environmental management systems.

2.2 National and Regional Policies

The regional agreements, together with the Convention, provide the required regulatory and protection measures that gear towards protecting the marine environment from pollution that may result from operational and accidental discharge of oil in the marine environment by ocean-going vessels. According to Gallagher Michael, the world is currently experiencing accelerating regionalism towards a global legal and administrative framework that is aimed at protecting and preserving the marine environment from pollution that may result from the discharge of oil in the marine environment. This is evident from the increased ocean governance where many regional organizations within the different parts of the world have emerged and are continuously formulating and developing regional agreements for the protection and preservation of the marine environment from pollution that may result from the discharge of oil in the marine environment. The formation and development of regional agreements are also coupled by the mounting international pressures to do more for the protection and preservation of the marine environment from oil pollution. However, there are also observations that the general focus on regionalism may turn up to be a significant deviation from the ideal global approach since many regional organizations are dependent on the financial and organizational resources of the contracting states and in most cases, the administrative and the technical capacity to establish strict liability regimes and to enforce adherence to such regional agreements might be lacking in some of the less resourceful nations. The presence of the technical difficulties, cost-effectiveness in the compliance levels, and the different environmental and economic interests within the region that often impedes progress in reaching full and comprehensive partnership among the member states.

2.3 Compliance and Enforcement Mechanisms

Standard directions and practice for oil spill response in UAE form an integral part of the oil spill prevention measures in the area. The Federal Law No. 24 of 1999 concerning the Protection and Development of the Environment requires that an environment and oil spill response plan is prepared by the oil company and submitted to the competent authority for approval. The Environment Agency in Abu Dhabi, for example, has set up a Waste Management Division tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that waste generated is properly handled and disposed of as per the department’s regulation. Inspection of waste facilities and oil spill response equipment and team is usually carried out to confirm compliance. The shipping companies usually have in place a system of monitoring, inspection, and audits in order to ensure that the environmental management system that they have developed is both adequate and effective in practice. It is a requirement that every 5 years, through a process of thorough review, verification, and certification, the oil companies are supposed to reassess, modify if needed, and resubmit to the Environment Agency for approval of the environment and oil spill response plan and amendments. In the event that oil pollution from ships and oil companies occurs, the operator is required to immediately report this case to the authorities and implement the oil spill containment and oil spill clean-up measures as required by the plan and, if necessary, try to restrict and prevent further damage to the coastal and marine life. Failure to do so constitutes an offense under the UAE Federal Law No. 24 of 1999, and the operator is likely to be subjected to heavy fines and other legal actions. The plan provides for a detailed procedure for identifying and classifying different types of oil spills. It further stipulates the reporting obligations of the respective persons and the role to be played by the oil spill response team and the Environment Agency for different categories of oil spills in different locations. The specific objectives of the plan are to enlist the cooperation and joint effort from the oil companies, the shipping companies, and relevant authorities to protect the UAE coastal line and marine life from the detrimental impact of oil pollution; to ensure that the operators are familiar with and adequately plan and prepare for oil spill emergencies; to provide for a more efficient and prompt response to any oil spill incidents by clearly defining the roles and powers of the different persons under the plan. Last but not least is to create awareness amongst the operators in respect of their legal obligation and liabilities in case of oil pollution from ships and to enhance the ongoing review and improvement of oil spill response techniques and equipment. Such a plan is expected to promote good industry practice by establishing minimum statutory requirements and to encourage research and development for a more effective response to oil spills.

3. Preventive Measures for Ships

Preventive measures for ships are classified as primary and secondary measures because there is a way of preventing oil spill at sea and also there is what can be done once a spill has occurred. The primary measures are to make sure that the oil or oily mixture should not get into the sea and the secondary measures are aimed at removing any spillage that has occurred, e.g. using oil absorbent materials like skimmer, dispersants, or burning. However, the most effective way is to prevent pollution by controlling the operational discharges and emissions and by securing oil in large tanks on board. Also, various regulations and rules may be adopted by MARPOL Annex 1 to prevent and minimize pollution from the boats in the water area. The first of these is to prepare and maintain a Ship – board Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP) which will provide the steps to control and reduce oil pollution to the minimum in case of an oil pollution. This plan is only about oil pollution from a ship and it should be followed either on the high sea or in the waters but it has to be tailored to the ship and its operation. Another measure is that every oil tanker of 150 tons gross or above and every ship in connection with the loading or carriage of an oil cargo should be provided with oil discharge monitoring and control systems and oily-water separating system. These systems need to be examined regularly and their performance should be monitored. By this way, the Port State Control or Coastal State Authority that performs regular inspection on ships and their documents and certificates can know that discharges from the ships are in compliance with the requirements set out in MARPOL Convention. Also, discharging of machinery bilge water is only allowed if the oil content of the effluent is less than parts per million and has been filtered. Violation of the regulations will attract heavy fines or even imprisonment. And also, when the ship comes into the port, the oily water has to be get rid of, adsorbent materials can be used to clear them or they can be retained on the ship. Also, the operation of Oily Water Separating Equipment can effectively help to resolve the disposal of the oily waters. It is a matter for the courts to determine each penalty but at maximum, the master of the ship can be fined a large sum and also imprisoned for a few years.

3.1 Design and Construction Standards

Ship design is changing rapidly with so many regulations and technological advancements being introduced. A major drive in the development of new ship design and construction practice arises from the push for ‘green’ ships, that is ships that have minimal negative impact on the marine environment and are energy efficient. In order for a new ship to be certified as meeting these targets, the ship will need to be assessed in compliance with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and other relevant regulations. There are a number of different IMO standards such as MARPOL Annex I, Regulation 13 which stipulates that oil tankers of 150 gross tonnage and above should be fitted with a double bottom and double sides and have a continuous longitudinal bulkhead located inboard of the shell plated. This is to prevent oil pollution from a substantial grounding incident. Furthermore, different space of the cargo tank has its different requirement and any opening in the cargo area on the deck, or cargo area boundaries must be situated above the summer load waterplane. This requirement can fulfil the functional these oil tanks which is to eliminating the apperance of oil outside the cargo area and reducing the dischange of oil from the vessel when grounding or colliding. Thus, all new oil tankers should be compliance with the above requirements and be using the latest mean of technology when designing the tanks and ensuring the segregation of the oil tanks. For example, in Regulation 13.5, there is a requirement that the drainage from cargo and ballast piping shall not lead to an oil tank and any electrical pump in the tank shall have its power supply located outside the tank. This is in line with MARPOL Annex I, Regulation 18A which requires the remote shut off, quick-closing valves or similar devices should be provided for the isolation of any cargo pump required by the regulation. Although all the measure in place is greatly improves the oil pollution prevention using by new oil tankers, a good maintenance strategy for an intrusive task like ship’s fuel tank cleaning is also crucial. It is believed that proper and practical fuel tank cleaning, fuel oil transfer and filtration with segregation and bunker management has continued to be the most cost-effective solution in achieving full regulatory compliance on the ultimate goal. Compliance with MARPOL is achieved through the issuance of international oil pollution prevention (IOPP) certificate and the oil record book. These also apply to existing ships and as such there are regulations governing the survey and certification of ships to ensure that they continue to meet these standards throughout their life. For example, under MARPOL’s Regulation 12, the survey consists of an initial survey before the ship is put in service or before the IOPP certificate is issued, which is followed by an annual survey and a renewal survey. The annual survey must be completed within 3 months before or after the annual, whereby the renewal survey must be completed within 3 months before the IOPP certificate expires. All these surveys also mean the ship’s structural or equipment layouts related to fuel and cargo oil transfer operation will need to be examined, and the instruments or measures required by the MARPOL needs to be verified that they properly installed and tested.

3.2 Operational Practices

Section 3.2 Operational Practices discusses the restrictions on the discharge of oil and oily mixture in the bilge of the ship. A requirement in the implementation of this section is that a ship should not be operated with oily bilge water retaining equipment unless it has been designed and constructed to ensure that the oil content of the effluent will be less than 15 parts per million. The section also analyses the daily routine and the operation of the oil filtering equipment provided on board ships. It stipulates that the oil filtering equipment must not be used during the process of manoeuvring or changing over the bilge water holding tanks. According to this section, the Oil Record Book must be kept on board the ship and be readily available for inspection at all reasonable times. It should be preserved for a period of at least three years from the date of the last entry. The Oil Record Book is examined for performance during Port State Control inspections which are measures used to verify that foreign vessels in Australian waters comply with, at least, the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. A ship can be directed by a Port State Control Officer to disembark its Oily Water Separator for examination to establish whether the equipment is fully operational and whether or not overboard discharges of oily water have been properly treated. Also, a laboratory examination of a sample of the oil content of the bilge water may be conducted to determine whether or not the effluent from the Oily Water Separator meets the required standard of 15 parts per million. Testing the oil filtering equipment by interrupting the bilge water transfer operation and the remote control power supply is an offence under the section. A maximum penalty of 10 penalty units applies to an offence against this subsection. A person in charge of the engine room must comply with a direction to demonstrate the operation of the oil filtering equipment. Failing to do so constitutes an offence with a maximum penalty of imprisonment for six months. These measures provide the owner, master or operator of a ship, as well as a responsible engine or deck officer, with specific obligations for a routine and proper maintenance of the oil filtering equipment and with respect to the completion of the Oil Record Book. An assessment of a sample of the content of the Oil Record Book is carried out. It is done to ensure that the operating practices and the parameters set out in relation to the use of oil filtering equipment are properly fulfilling the requirements of the International Safety Management Code; and other relevant flag state standards and port state requirements. In this way, substandard and outdated equipment may be identified and rectified. The section also involves an examination of the sanctions for an offence committed in breach of this section. The punishments range from fines to imprisonment. An offender may be liable to a fine of up to 350 penalty units. However, the court of summary jurisdiction may impose a term of imprisonment in addition to, or instead of, a fine. It is intended that more serious violations of the section be met with a custodial sentence. Nevertheless, it is the discretion of the court to determine the appropriate punishment, given the circumstances surrounding each particular case.

3.3 Training and Certification Requirements

This system of evaluation and certification, according to my opinion, represents the heart of the preventive measures for ships as only competent and sufficiently trained people can ensure that the regulations are satisfied in a satisfying effective and practical manner and make sure that the ship is exempted from the detention risk. As required by the international convention, all personnel who are tasked with the care, discharge or handling of oil on board ships should be adequately trained in the operation of oil discharge monitoring and control equipment as well as oil and water separating and filtering equipment. The relevant training certificate should be as per the standards stipulated and must be approved by the designated or competent assessing authority in the respective or relevant country where the ship is licensed to sail. First of all, all the required trainings should be continuously administered and implemented in a structured and regular basis or in accordance with a scheduled or designed program. It is the responsibility of the master, the ship’s chief engineer and the company’s shore management that the whole system has been complied with. The type of training and the elements to be included differ from one type of certification to the other. The said certificate is a proof to show that the candidate has received adequate training in the operation of complement and sewage treatment plants. On the other hand, all engineers undertaking the duty of operating and performing periodical operations with the bilge separators and oil filtering equipment should be properly trained and the training received as well as the certificate issued must fulfill the international convention standards. The validity of the certificate is subject to the procedures and requirement of the course but in general the certificate is to be renewed under a period of five years. The candidate must sit for the renewal course before the end of the five-year. It is a requirement of the law that every posed engine officer who has got a chief engineer or first or second engineer certificate have to receive and complete the management level training program.

3.4 Monitoring and Reporting Systems

From above, monitoring and reporting systems for ships under the requirement are well-outlined for the prevention of oil pollution from ships and from the operators maintaining such systems. The provision requires oil record books or operations record books to be maintained and it must be available for inspection at any time. And each entry must be completed as soon as practicable after the operations are completed. Every discharge into the sea and every discharge to reception facilities are to be recorded in the oil record books. These records shall be retained on board the ship for at least the period of twelve months immediately following the last entry. Such records may be kept in an electronic or computerized system approved by the administration, taking into account guidelines developed by the organization. Properly qualified and experienced personnel should be employed to operate and maintain the monitoring equipment and this means that it should include the use of flow, level and other appropriate indicating and control devices necessary to show that the systems are in operation. Furthermore, the alarm systems function and alarm methods adopted to automatically alert personnel who are not continuously engaged in the operation and monitoring of the system, so that appropriate action can be undertaken promptly in case of any malfunction. During the inspection or visit by the port or flag state control officers, the officers may each take necessary samples from the oil filtering equipment in order that an effective visual comparison of the internal parts of the system with that shown in the oil record book can be made as part of the inspection. In case of any improper operations or illegal discharges, comprehensive investigation, access to data and records and other information for the purpose of finding out the cause and nature of the violation will likely be carried out to prevent and combat illegal discharges and oil pollution from ships. Not only offenders are subject to severe penalty including full cost recovery of any clean-up operations in connection with illegal discharges but also the owner, operator, master and the person in charge of the ship is held liable to ensure that all reasonable precautions have been taken and all reasonable due diligence exercised to avoid the commission of the offence. This serves as a collective responsibility to in embracing a strong monitoring and reporting systems in the prevention of oil pollution from ships and oil companies so as to conserve the environment and protect the oceans.

4. Preventive Measures for Oil Companies

4.1 Oil Spill Response Plans

4.2 Risk Assessment and Management

4.3 Emergency Preparedness and Contingency Planning

4.4 Environmental Management Systems

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