Improving safety at sea and in ports through the development of maritime English standards
1. Introduction
However, research studies have suggested that there are still significant areas of concern across the industry with regard to levels of English language knowledge and how it can affect personal safety and efficient operation in the workplace. In particular, Dr. Cleopatra Doumbia-Henry, President of the World Maritime University, recently commented that the use of English as a working language and medium of instruction has placed an extra layer of complexity for both students and teaching staff, ‘primarily because this is not the first language for either group’. Furthermore, the development of international guidelines and standards for maritime English, particularly in the areas of teaching and practically achievable competency ideals, has yet to be formalized at a stage which mirrors similar provisions for other occupational areas. It is suggested that the International Maritime Organization is progressing work in this area, yet it is clear that developments are necessary to ensure a fair, meritocratic and above all safe working environment for all sea-going professionals.
The latter of the two mandates that seafarers undergoing the training must be given instruction in the English language course hero pro papers to a specified minimum standard if the course modules are in English and the final examination is written in English. Such legislation presupposes that the use of English in the industry is already recognized as important and takes the use of English as a given requirement for improving safety standards.
There are already some aspects of the marine working environment which insist on at least a basic level of English language knowledge. For instance, minimum international standards for training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers (a convention created in 1978 and amended in 1995) and the mandatory standards of training that must be provided for seafarers on an international scale (established in 1978 and updated via the Manila Amendments of 2010) both require basic English language understanding. These have been implemented worldwide and are known as the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers and the International Maritime Organization – Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping.
The present research aims to emphasize the importance of regular English language competency assessments and the development of a single, standard form of the language for the marine industry. Specifically, this paper will focus on how the industry can move away from the widespread use of sub-standard versions of English, often referred to as ‘seaspeak’, towards the promotion and mandatory implementation of a standard form of the English language.
The maritime industry is perhaps one of the oldest and the most efficient means of transporting goods from one place to another. The industry has always been considered vital for trading relationships and economic welfare. Large, complex and dangerous operations are only possible due to the expertise and professionalism of the workforce, combined with high levels of safety awareness and adherence to stringent safety standards. Maritime workers ought to possess significant technical skills and abilities to ensure a safe working environment, especially in terms of effective communication and knowledge of English language.
1.1 Background
In the maritime industry, effective communication is the key to safe and successful operations. From routine activities in the port to demanding emergency operations at sea, maritime professionals must be able to communicate clearly and comprehensively. However, many people working in the industry do not have English as their first language. Non-native speakers outnumber native English speakers by a large margin – over 80% of seafarers and other maritime personnel fall into this category, according to a Duolingo 2018 industry survey. This diversity in languages is further compounded by the variety of working situations and the tremendous amount of technology being introduced into the industry, changing the nature of communication itself. The potential for miscommunication and misunderstandings is significant and this is reflected in research into maritime accidents. Well over half of all accidents at sea can be attributed to poor communication, human error or a combination of the two. In recognition of the vital importance of good communication, transport industry regulators have begun to develop standards for mandatory training and assessment in maritime English. This paper discusses the most important of these standards, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) STCW Code amendments in 2010/2012. These required new or revised training and certification programmes for all maritime personnel – including seafarers and port control staff – to embrace the IMO’s national language standard. The paper also examines recent research into the development and impact of maritime English and describes the content and method of delivery used in courses which are currently being delivered to meet the IMO standards. Well over half of all accidents at sea can be attributed to poor communication, human error or a combination of the two. In recognition of the vital importance of good communication, transport industry regulators have begun to develop standards for mandatory training and assessment in maritime English. This paper discusses the most important of these standards, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) STCW Code amendments in 2010/2012. These required new or revised training and certification programmes for all maritime personnel – including seafarers and port control staff sweet study bay- to embrace the IMO’s national language standard. The paper also examines recent research into the development and impact of maritime English and describes the content and method of delivery used in courses which are currently being delivered to meet the IMO standards.
1.2 Problem Statement
Our marine and maritime courses are internationally recognized qualifications, designed to help you begin your career at sea. Despite the great demands and physical challenges of the maritime environment, it is a relatively safe mode of transportation. The levels of permanent and serious injury are comparatively low. The major reason is considered to be lack of knowledge, as unlike any other modes of transportation, it is a unique working site where people have to live and work for a very long time without any break. There are no gas stations, hospitals, hotels, and repair shops in the miles. At the time of any breakdown on the sea, it may be a risk to life. Obviously, all involved in the operation of ships and ports are obliged to ensure the health and safety of everyone. However, the risks can never be completely eliminated. Unlike any other working environment, the workers on the ships and in the ports have more responsibility for their own safety. Also, in the time of rescue operation, safety of rescuer is accounted first. To ensure that safety at sea and in ports, the workers are required to have the appropriate English language and standards of communicative skills. The problems related to communication and lack of adequate English language skills have always been recognized in the shipping industry but have increased due to the greater diversity of languages spoken by crew. The number of crew members who do not speak English as their first language has increased due to the increasing globalization of the shipping industry. This has given more importance to maritime English as an internationally recognized language. The communication on board ship and ship to shore has been cited as casual factor contributing to a number of accidents in the pages of the Nautical Institute’s magazine “Seaways” and the UK government’s Marine Accident Investigation Bulletin. Some other similar type of publications all around the world and various accident databases have shown the language-related accidents in the shipping industry. Based on the statistics from the UK Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB), 7 language-related accidents took place in 2006 and 5 out of top 10 casual factors for accidents in the UK Department of Transparency Shipping and Vessel Casualty Database were related to bad communication and language. Also, in some other accident reports, it clearly indicates that the root cause of the accident was not lack of technology, experience, or financial situation, but the main reason is lack of clear communication. Both the officers and the crew need language competency for good communication, and to ensure that they can understand standard orders in English and that they can get the orders clearly and implement them correctly and free from ambiguity. The officers also need to enable communications with a shore-based traffic movement authority, such as English-speaking pilots or tugs and for the purposes of good communication between bridge team members. The master, officers, and others having a responsibility for the safety of the ship are required to have knowledge in English language, as per the International Standard of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW). Master and deck department are listed in the STCW with the requirement of, as per column 1 and 2, “use of English language is required when certain tasks have to be performed” and in case of column 3, “adequate knowledge of English is necessary to understand technical and management problems on board.”
1.3 Objectives
The objectives of this work are to understand the causes of accidents caused by ineffective communication in the maritime industry, to analyze the significance of language skill competencies for both shores and sea staff, to examine the current methods and sources of maritime English teaching, to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods and propose areas for improvements, to explore the results of the implementation of maritime English standards, to consider the potential barriers to the full implementation of the STCW 2010 Manila Amendments and assess how the likelihood of these can be mitigated. Also, I aim to encourage more research and studies in the area of maritime English and enhance the industry’s understanding of the key success factors in teaching and learning the language because it is clear that more needs to be done in order to create a safer working environment, especially in relation to the practical aspects of teaching and maintaining English language ability. I intend to justify the argument that an internationally standardized form of English should be taught and expected in the maritime world so that it will facilitate the learning and use of the language. By doing so, the thoughtful insights and the practical knowledge are very useful in informing practice and ultimately bring our industry one step closer to making it safer by preventing accidents caused by poor communication. The research will also be helpful for those who are considering designing new teaching and learning materials by directing them towards the area. It is important because a standard which recognizes that many different types of language are in use in the maritime world will serve to promote equality and diminish the ‘native speaker’ advantage that can be present. Besides, the teaching of a specific form of English will enable students to modify their speech as necessary in order to effectively communicate both with native speakers and with those who speak English as a second language.
2. Importance of Maritime English
Maritime English is an essential aspect of the operation of ships and seaports. Ships carry people and goods, and it is essential to ensure their safety. Shipping is a genuinely international industry, employing seafarers from many countries, and at any time on any journey, the chance is that there will be many different nationalities on board a vessel. Such diversity is a rich and positive aspect of seafaring and is to be welcomed. However, while all these people are together on board the ship and often have to work together in an emergency, it is essential that they can understand each other. It is therefore vital for maritime professionals to have an internationally acceptable form of maritime English to rely on, regardless of these various nationalities. But it can be argued that the English language already provides such a means of communication. The paper will highlight the various communication challenges that are evident, the impact that such continued language barriers can have on safety, and the need for language standardization. In previous studies by L1 Secure, polling the users of their Language Safety Assessment tool revealed that staff overwhelmingly supported standardization, with 75% of users supporting the inclusion of one main language for maritime communication. In light of what has been said above, it is important to discuss the impact that language barriers at sea can have on safety. IMO’s comprehensive body of global standards, supported by many countries internationally, has played a significant role here, and great strides have been made through the Maritime Labor Convention relating to language standards for ship’s crew. However, this regulation only applies to ship’s crew, and it does not provide for phraseology standards for on-board use. Standardization will deliver widespread safety and efficiency benefits in the long term, particularly in terms of ensuring consistency and understanding.
2.1 Communication Challenges at Sea and in Ports
Communication challenges primarily stem from various linguistic backgrounds and the verbal and non-verbal idiosyncrasies of individual seafarers. At any one time on board a vessel, there is potentially a variety of different languages being spoken. This multilingual nature has always been a characteristic and an attraction of the shipping industry. It is reflective of an international spirit among the ships’ crews and officers. However, the sheer volume of maritime traffic worldwide today means that sea traffic is more concentrated, particularly in areas around busy ports. Issues arising from this high level of traffic include minor and major accidents ranging from incorrect maneuvering, poor judgment, and inadequate lookout to groundings and collisions. When we examine where and why such accidents occur, the statistics show that the majority occur close to ports and in coastal waters. In ports and their approaches, this concentration of traffic as well as the restricted size of navigable areas and variable tidal streams often lead to difficult conditions for seafarers. On similar incidents, caused by language barriers, a Chinese First Officer was miscommunicated while trying to convey advice on course alteration to a Russian Master through an English-speaking Second Officer. This resulted in the vessel grounding on a Slovakian coast. This inability to communicate safely—either through missing or misunderstanding vital commands—is a familiar problem to seafarers. Another example is a collision between a bulk carrier and a general cargo vessel in the Dover Strait TSS in 2002 where the general cargo vessel’s Greek pilot and the bulk carrier’s Ukrainian Master could not establish VHF radiotelephone communication on a common working channel, in accordance with the Collision Regulations. Also, a Filipino AB and Fourth Engineer on board the bulk carrier misinterpreted the radar and automatic radar plotting aid display of the general cargo vessel approaching from starboard because the Dutch Watchkeeping Officer had given commands in English terms, whilst a German Quartermaster used Helm commands in German. This contributed to the bulk carrier being obligated to give way under the Collision Regulations but failing to do so, thus causing the collision. Such incidents may involve a mixture of ships’ staff and should be taken seriously and reported for the longer term benefit of seafarer safety. While English has gained international preeminence and is most commonly used at sea, the reality is that language can often act as a divisive force, undermining efforts towards close-knit and well-coordinated teams. The MCA’s independent survey of 2004 indicated that the language factor was clearly recognized, with only 27% of all respondents regarding the good use of English as the main reason for, or a major contributory factor to maritime accidents. The inappropriately named ‘linguistic decision theory’ that happens to different seafarers refers to the phenomenon whereby individuals in a multilingual situation choose the language in which they have the best knowledge so as to maximize the chance of understanding and to be understood. In practice, this choice may not necessarily result from a thoughtful assessment but from habit and convenience; and the chosen language may be emotionally and politically influenced. This means that native speakers’ illogical choices based on personal convenience can potentially isolate and exclude others. Also known as the “language task problem” among the academic circles, the theory not only explains the root of conflict in a multilingual environment but also demonstrates the inherent difficulty to effective communication among seafarers.
2.2 Impact of Language Barriers on Safety
The communication between the crew and between the ship and shore can greatly impact the safety of the ship and the people on board. Misunderstandings and mistakes are more likely to happen in an environment where people do not understand each other. In shipping, human error is a large factor in all types of incidents and accidents. According to a study conducted by the Swedish Club, 26% of the 1,000 navigational claims analysed were due to some form of communication failure, such as poor use of English. Although the same study highlights other problems such as workload (which was a factor in 31% of these claims), language was by far and away the greatest contributory factor. 19% of the claims were attributed directly to the language used, with a further 7% thought to be as a result of a lack of language. In a further quarter of claims, it was thought that difficulty in expression or communication was a contributory factor. There are many common problems created by the language on board ships, with the watch-keeping officer not understanding the helm, the pilot, the chief engineer, crew members not understanding orders, the bridge not understanding what the engine room is trying to communicate, and crew members not understanding each other. These problems occur for a number of reasons. Firstly, that the majority of the crews of ships are often completely multinational and rarely does anyone have the benefit of crew all speaking the same first language. Secondly, at times when the safety of the ship is at risk, or in a crisis, often the least attention is paid to good communication due to the panic and pressure that everyone feels. Then, that the buying cheapest and easiest master and crew member English courses is all too common – often they fail to truly immerse the crew in the acceptable standard of English, or even the everyday English, used by members of the society that are English or native speakers. This practice is carrying the risk of the mariners becoming complacent and familiar with the language course rather than being able to use the language in stressful and practical situations. Last but not least, issues at the recruitment stage often lead to a mismatch between the language skills of the captain and senior officers, and those of the junior crew members. This can create serious communication problem during handover and at other times when the senior staff and the junior staff need to work together and understand each other. The language used on board might not just affect the communication and safety, but it also has implications on commercial level. For those people responsible for arranging the crew, it is crucial that they understand that paying only a fraction for good language courses can actually be detrimental on many levels. For example, if there was ever an accident and it did transpire that it occurred due to poor communication caused by lack of language and language courses, this could be taken further in legal terms and might lead to fines and compensation being awarded.
2.3 Need for Standardization
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has taken steps to develop an agreed set of standards for maritime English. It has worked with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to develop ISO standards which are recognized around the world and can be implemented on a global scale. There is also an alignment to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) as most of the standards for language ability and proficiency within Europe are referenced against this framework. This includes a recognition that English is the international language of shipping. Although not all ships will utilize the new ISO standards, they provide a significant development in setting a clear and uniform international standard for maritime English. It will no longer be left to the discretion of maritime training organizations as to what level must be achieved and how this should be assessed. Instead, the ISO 19001 standard will be implemented in a systematic way which will require organizations to fully understand the requirement and be smarter in making sure that teaching and learning supports this. Given the advances made in technology in recent years and more recently in respect of maritime autonomy, new standards for communication in the digital environment have also been published. IMO Resolution 708(17) on Guidelines for the Uniform Implementation of the International Safety Management (ISM) Code by Administrations was published to comply with a specific mandate made previously by the Maritime Safety Committee. This sets out standards such as: ‘Information technology is used for internal and external communication’ and ‘persons involved in operating the ships should be able to understand the language used on board’. By setting standards at an international level, there will be a requirement for companies to develop their understanding of the new ISO specifications and to equip their seafarers with the necessary linguistic skills to comply with these. This will encourage greater links and dialogue between ship operators, academies and language training providers with the objective of reducing the likelihood of criticism or allegations of poor safety culture and improper training, ultimately improving on-board relations and the occupational environment for those at sea. Through an introduction and control of international standards for the level of English required by seafarers, their level of linguistic ability and the way in which this will be assessed will be tailored to best suit the ship and the crew members. This will empower training organizations to specialize in language courses designed for the maritime sector and allow for a more structured approach to the learning and teaching process. These standards will aim to bring uniformity in the education provided, for example ensuring that seafarers have access to high-quality teaching from skilled professionals who have a full understanding of the requirements needed. By enhancing the repertoires of vocabulary and phrases taught and focusing on work-specific situations in maritime English language courses, students will be better placed to deal with the particular contexts that will arise on board ships. Gradual updates and improvements to the way in which maritime English is taught will enable alignment to the provisions of the new ISO 19001 standards for language, which require the course and examination material to reflect the specific needs of a given field, in this case marine or shipping terminology. Over time, the knowledge and understanding of how to integrate and apply these new standards in education will filter through into the quality of linguistics and communication skills of seafarers, benefiting safety and positive working practices in the maritime community.
3. Development of Maritime English Standards
3.1 Current Practices and Guidelines
3.2 International Maritime Organization (IMO) Initiatives
3.3 Research and Studies on Maritime English
3.4 Best Practices from Other Industries
4. Implementation and Impact of Maritime English Standards
An increase in English language maritime and academic materials and the introduction of the new standards have seen more attention given to the English language, whereby additional class work and lessons have been planned. Students and professionals have taken up the language studies in such forums. On a general perspective, the introduction and implementation of the new standards have seen significant progress in English language excellence. The standards have set the grounds on how English should be learned and used in the maritime industry.
The new lessons and improvement in the language have developed a better platform for everyone to interact in. However, recent studies by researchers Jennifer L. Conte and Melissa L. Baltus have established that teaching a specific field like maritime English requires careful selection and professional development to ensure that the students get the desired impact. This will definitely improve not only the knowledge of the language but also how it is practically used in the industry.
The introduction of broader and effective communication, which is enhanced by the new standards, has allowed very dynamic and efficient operations. This has steadily increased over time since the new standards were fully implemented. In recent years, technology and global business have prompted many people, irrespective of the countries of origin, to learn and perfect their English language. This has also had an impact on the proficiency of English among the maritime professionals and students.
Standardization of the maritime English language has had a great impact on the communication skills among players in the maritime sector. The impact has been felt both in shore-based and on-board communication. For a long time now, English language as used in the maritime sector has been full of jargon and unwanted vocabulary. However, with the new standards, there has been a clear and universally understood mode of communication. Most importantly, the new language has simplified communication and even made it more effective. It is easier now for seafarers, who come from all corners of the world, to understand each other and also to convey information more thoroughly and objectively.
In relation to this, several people in the maritime sector will have to be trained on how to use the new standards. These include the crew, the operators, and the port state control officers. Although it is difficult to change the mindset of individuals, training provides an opportunity for professionals to learn how the new changes can be incorporated into their day-to-day activities.
After developing maritime English standards, the next important step is implementation. This involves various stakeholders taking an active role in ensuring that the new standards are well executed. The first and most important step in the implementation process is disseminating information. This is done through awareness creation activities, such as workshops, conferences, and distributing pamphlets with information about the new standards. The idea here is to ensure that as many people as possible get to understand what is happening.
4.1 Training and Education Programs
Comparative studies, surveys, and reports by various international organizations have pointed out that the quality and methods of teaching maritime English differ widely across the world, though the general requirements remain more or less the same. According to research released by the International Maritime Lecturers’ Association in 1995, only five percent of maritime English teachers had received teacher training, whereas it’s common knowledge that non-specialist language teachers, who do not have practical experience of the maritime industry, do not usually understand the particular learning needs of the students. Moreover, as a result of the closure of maritime faculties in traditional seafaring nations such as the UK, the recruitment of experimental, proficient maritime teachers has become a very difficult task. Most of the time, the maritime institutions have to let students be taught by English teachers who hold a valid teaching certificate of basic international English standard such as the Cambridge Certificate of English Language Teaching to Adults (CELTA) or the Trinity Certificate in TESOL, Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. This seriously undermines a student’s study interest and outcome. However, the findings of the research paper ‘The Reform of Maritime English Teaching Methods in Chinese Maritime Institutions’ indicate that the situation in China might have been improved with the recent adoption of the International Maritime Organization’s Model Course 3.17 and the teaching through maritime-specific technical English. It suggests that the development of a common maritime English teaching standard can be significantly more successful if the curriculum covers a wide range of maritime English applications rather than traditional teaching forms. A better quality of teaching can be assured if the courses are designed to reflect the changing trends of education by providing a more diversified and pragmatic education to the students. Furthermore, a new teaching and studying environment aiming to encourage more interactions among the lecturers and students so that the students have to engage in regular practical exercises and assessments focused on the maritime technology and language use in maritime English is also vital for the enhancement of the English standard among the crew members. This can be supported by the recent suggestions made by the industry players, who also attend the International Maritime English Conference held every ten years and who are unanimous in recognizing the need to develop a more effective way of teaching maritime English through adopting the latest teaching theory and information technology.
4.2 Assessing Language Proficiency
Maritime English is the international language of the seas and the primary language used in vital communications for shipping. As English is used by those who have not grown up in the language and who have been exposed to it in very different environments and for a wide range of purposes, there is a need to ensure that seafarers have a standard of English language skills and understanding that are sufficient to ensure the safety and security of marine navigation and the protection of the marine environment. In order to ascertain and benchmark an individual’s ability to communicate in English in a maritime environment, a structured assessment process is required. A standardized test should be developed that can assess speaking and listening comprehension skills as well as reading comprehension and writing skills. The test should be formed of a number of modules and carry a level of validity, which will allow for the measurement of an individual’s progress and attainment of the required standard. In this regard, it is worth noting that the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted a new requirement for the proficiency in English for international seafarers to be included in the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW). From January 2012, all new seafarers applying for certification will be required to provide evidence of having been trained in language and communication skills and seafarers who have already qualified will have to provide such evidence as from January 2017. This move has been welcomed by the shipping industry and its social partners. The industry has long recognized the need for a unified training programme that provided a standard level of language proficiency for seafarers and this five-year transition period for existing seafarers will provide ample opportunity for this standard to be achieved in practice. Also, it is hoped that in the longer term there will be a better understanding by seafarers and their employers of the nature and standard of the language skills required to operate safely and to support and meet the needs of the assessment process. This will lead to a decline in the number of language-related accidents at sea, a much improved safety record, and will significantly reduce the possibility of errors in communication that could lead to catastrophic consequences. Moreover, the testing providers should also bear in mind the need for commercial awareness and offer flexibility in the location of exams and the employer should be able to choose from a number of testing providers recognized by the flag state. This will allow employers to take into account the availability of training and examination places in their crew development plans. Transformation is costly but the shipping industry as a whole, including training providers and employers, will surely recognize the long-term cost-effectiveness and benefits of a strategy focused on the delivery of improved safety and security. These include direct financial benefits, such as reduced insurance premiums for the commercial shipping sector and of course the prevention of accidents and the avoidance of claims. Furthermore, it can also lead to fewer search and rescue operations and less background pollution incidents which have a significant harmful impact on the marine environment. Such measures can only provide an added attraction for all those, which includes the officers among the industry who are dedicated to maintaining a skilled and professional workforce.
4.3 Enhancing Communication Technologies
The rapid advancement of communication technologies has revolutionized the shipping industry, offering new ways to bypass language barriers and helping to connect people from different parts of the world. One of the main areas in this process involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of information. For instance, a vessel data management system, apart from promoting safer and more secure maritime navigation, provides the opportunity to exchange important information between ship and shore-side managers. The development of the so-called e-Navigation trend represents a triumphant collection of modern technologies and international cooperation in the area of e-Navigation, maritime telecommunications, and the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System. The improvement in this area leads not only to simplifying the use of vessel traffic services and improving the safety standards of navigation but it also allows to globalize maritime communications and provides better tools for rescue authorities. In parallel with these, companies recognize the benefits and incentives behind the investment in communication and language technologies in the first place. Such technologies as machine translation have already started to change the way multilingual information is processed, providing automatic translation services and terminology management solutions. The so-called Translation Memory System, owing to its ability to store a database of paragraphs and sentences that have already been translated and validated, ensures standardization and higher quality of information across the maritime industry. With the implementation of these modern technologies, the industry is moving towards even more efficient and safer working conditions, improved procedures and measurements, and better communication ability thanks to the standardization of the used terminology. Not only do the companies have more effective tools in their possession but they can also adjust their work and their products to reach wider audiences thus bringing more success in the global maritime market.
4.4 Case Studies and Success Stories
The use of case studies and success stories is a vital way of increasing the confidence of the industry in adopting and implementing maritime English training and assessment, and enhancing and demonstrating the potential impact of the entire process. This will in turn reinforce the idea that implementation of a maritime English standard will increase safety and efficiency on ships and in ports. By introducing the idea and the importance of using test beds, such as the MTEC facility at Warsash, the significance and context of generating case studies and success stories was outlined. These will not only help to verify the potential impact a maritime English standard could have, but also it will be possible to discover potential unexpected impacts which may provide a chance for researchers to improve the standard, the training package and the assessment. Success analysis – used frequently in new product development or marketing analysis – is successful in the shared goal of developing our ‘perfect’ standard. Perhaps most importantly, the stories can assist in developing a mutual understanding in the industry and alleviate some of the current prevalent fears in change, by providing specific narrative of how this is going to help. By comparison, the use of case studies uk writings essay pro and success stories marketed in the maritime industry with other industries was considered. Success stories on standardization do exist in other industries, such as in health care/technology, where ‘no standard’ to ‘a standard’ and its benefits have been clearly demonstrated. Also by looking at how Computer Science has embraced arguments centered on the ‘race for standards’, further input from industry has provided assurance, confidence and acceptance of the success in creating a well-recognized and effective study program.

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