Case of a psychologist who is facing an ethical dilemma of client confidentiality
This paper analyzes the case of a psychologist who's going through an moral dilemma of shopper confidentiality versus obligation to the group. It makes use of three fashions of moral reasoning- utilitarianism, Wallace’s Moral Contextualism, and Kant’s Formalist Idea. The moral dilemma of the psychologist may be solved by preserving the precept of privateness and confidentiality and by recommending professional assist for the employee. The outcomes are better good for society, context-based options, treating staff as ends themselves, and making a call that may be universalized. If the employee will get the assist he wants, it's attainable to enhance his efficiency and life situations, that are aligned to the rules of psychologists and private and organizational objectives of involved stakeholders.
This paper analyzes the case of a psychologist who's going through an moral dilemma of shopper confidentiality versus obligation to the group. The moral questions are: What ought to the guide psychologist advise to the forklift operator? Ought to she report his admission of his alcohol issues to the corporate, even when it would danger him his job? This paper makes use of three fashions of moral reasoning- utilitarianism, Wallace’s Moral Contextualism, and Kant’s Formalist Idea. It argues that based mostly on utilitarianism, moral Contextualism, and formalist idea, the psychologist ought to put better worth on shopper confidentiality and shouldn't inform the group concerning the forklift employee’s drawback. The psychologist ought to take care of the scenario independently by providing recommendation to the employee that may assist him remedy his private issues.
For act utilitarianism, the first query is: What are the consequences of a sure set of actions on the final steadiness of fine over evil? (Velasquez et al., 1989). Earlier than continuing to reply this query, step one is figuring out numerous programs of motion that the psychologist can do (Velasquez et al., 1989). The primary choice is that the psychologist is not going to worth shopper confidentiality and she is going to inform the corporate concerning the alcohol issues of the forklift operator. The second choice is that the psychologist will worth confidentiality extra and ask the employee to hunt for psychological assist additionally, in order that he can acquire extra assist and steering in coping along with his private issues.
The subsequent step is to evaluate the harms and advantages of every choice (Velasquez et al., 1989). For the primary choice, the harms are that the corporate will not belief the employee and hearth him, or demote him. Both method, the utility of the employee will probably be decreased, as a result of as he instructed the psychologist, he's blissful along with his job, contemplating the pay and nature of labor. If he's fired, he would endure extra emotional, and moreover, financially, as nicely. This could additionally add as much as his household issues, as a result of his spouse will get angrier at him. It's assumed that he already has a household, based mostly on his admission of his age. Shedding his job can result in marital issues and financial stress that may additionally pave the way in which for divorce and an sad household. If he's demoted, he's nonetheless in the identical financial and emotional place as being fired. Having misplaced the job he loves and desires, he will probably be much less blissful than earlier than.
As well as, the psychologist may also not be that blissful, as a result of she has violated the American Psychological Affiliation’s (APA) (2010) Moral rules of psychologists and code of conduct. The precept of privateness and confidentiality is violated by informing others of the shopper’s issues. Customary four.01 Sustaining Confidentiality says:
Psychologists have a major obligation and take affordable precautions to guard confidential data obtained by means of or saved in any medium, recognizing that the extent and limits of confidentiality could also be regulated by regulation or established by institutional guidelines or skilled or scientific relationship. (italics added, cited from APA, 2010).
It's the major accountability of psychologists to guard confidential data. What the employee instructed her is totally confidential, and informing different individuals about his drawback breaches the precept of confidentiality. One other consequence is that staff will not belief their psychologists, since they are going to really feel that the latter will reveal their secrets and techniques to the corporate anyway. When this occurs, the integrity of psychology as a occupation may also be injured.
Regardless of these detrimental impacts on a number of stakeholders, the group could also be higher off, as a result of they'll substitute the employee with one other worker with no alcoholic issues. This could scale back accidents and enhance effectivity. Nonetheless, if the employee has been with the group for a very long time, then terminating him due to his well being and emotional issues would depress employee morale. They'd assume that the loyalty of an worker means nothing to the group, and that the group wouldn't prolong a serving to hand to staff going through related issues. The detrimental penalties will probably be that extra staff will not search assist and issues can be hidden for concern of termination, which can result in decrease productiveness sooner or later.
For the second choice, the psychologist will put better constructive worth on shopper confidentiality extra and ask the employee to hunt for psychological assist additionally, in order that he can acquire extra assist and steering in coping along with his private issues. This can be a higher choice as a result of the outcome will probably be greater internet good for the society. For the employee, he can nonetheless preserve his job and having psychological assistance will assist his methods to cease consuming and to minimize his withdrawal signs. The employee’s household may also profit as a result of the psychologist may also help him deal with his issues extra correctly and that they are going to not have additional monetary issues. The group may also be higher off, as a result of a valued worker will probably be maintained and the prices of hiring and coaching one other worker will probably be diminished. The psychologist may also be higher off as a result of she preserves the integrity of her occupation and he or she additionally upholds the precept of confidentiality. Thus, based mostly on utilitarianism, your best option is to permit the employee to deal with his drawback with enough professional assist.
Wallace’s Moral Contextualism
Wallace believed that there aren't any universally relevant or acceptable moral values for all instances (Ford, 2000, p.77). He harassed that context impacts the relevance of points and the true moral battle (Ford, 2000, p.78). On this case, with the intention to remedy the moral dilemma, the psychologist ought to assess related situations (Ford, 2000, p.78). The related precept is shopper confidentiality as a result of it applies extra to the case than organizational loyalty. The psychologist has a major position in preserving confidentiality, particularly when disclosing the employee’s drawback can result in shedding his job. Shedding his job can current better psychological and monetary issues for him. The psychologist can also be put at a very good place, opposite to considering that she ought to rationalize utilizing battle as a detrimental worth (Ford, 2000, p.78). The psychologist may also help a person overcome his private issues, which might outcome to higher efficiency. She will “shoot two birds” in a single stone, so to talk, by serving to the shopper privately and serving to the group attain its goal of accelerating employee productiveness. In any case, as soon as the employee solves his alcoholic and emotional issues, he can be fitter to work and he also can improve his efficiency.
Wallace additionally requested why these choices are vital to the individuals concerned. This determination will probably be vital to the psychologist as a result of that is aligned with the Code of Ethics of her occupation (Ford, 2000, p.78). This determination may also be vital to the worker, as a result of he can get the professional assist that he wants. This determination may also be vital to the group as a result of the means present for the top of bettering office efficiency. Therefore, Contextualism additionally helps the advice that the psychologist would privately assist the worker search medical consideration.
Kant’s Formalist Idea
Kant argued that an motion is correct if it may be utilized a priori as a common regulation (Ford, 2000, p.62). If all psychologists additionally select to assist the employee confidentially, will it nonetheless be proper? This paper argues that it'll nonetheless be proper, as a result of the code of ethics of psychologists will probably be promoted. As well as, the employee could have an opportunity to redeem himself and his group will profit from a greater efficiency. The employee’s household may also have an opportunity of their lives not being extra ruined that it was. If the employee solves his private and alcohol issues, his household will certainly profit from these constructive penalties additionally.
Kant additionally argues that individuals must be handled as an finish and never as means to their ends (Ford, 2000, p.62). If the psychologist informs the corporate concerning the employee’s issues, she will probably be utilizing the employee because the means to her finish, whereby her finish or objective is to assist the corporate enhance its efficiency. This is able to not be proper as a result of each human being must be handled as an finish, not as means alone (Ford, 2000, p.62). Thus, utilizing Kant’s idea, it should additionally not be proper for the psychologist to reveal the employee’s drawback to the group.
The moral dilemma of the psychologist may be solved by upholding the precept of privateness and confidentiality and by recommending additional assist for the employee. The results are better good for society, relevance of evaluation based mostly on the context, treating staff as ends themselves, and utility of a call that may be universalized. So long as the employee will get the assist he wants, it's attainable to show his efficiency and life round, for the good thing about quite a few stakeholders.
American Psychological Affiliation (APA).(2010). Moral rules of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved Could 30, 2010, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
Ford, G.G. (2000). Moral reasoning within the psychological well being professions. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Velasquez, M., Andre, C., Shanks, T., & Meyer, M.J. (1989). Calculating penalties: The utilitarian method to ethics. Markkula Heart for Utilized Ethics at Santa Clara College. Retrieved Could 30, 2010, from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/training/determination/calculating.html