CASE STUDY essay

SE/The Labor Relations Process, 11th Edition ISBN-13: 978-1-305-57620-9 ©2017 Designer: LD Text & Cover printer: Edward Brothers Binding: CB Trim: 8” x 10” CMYK
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THE LABOR RELATIONS PROCESS

Holley | Ross | Wolters

11th Edition

THE LABOR RELATIONS PROCESS

Holley | Ross | Wolters

11th Edition

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T H

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Holley Ross

Wolters

11th Edition

76209_cvr_ptg01_hires.indd 1 14/03/16 4:06 PM

The Labor Relations Process

ELEVENTH EDITION

Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States

The Labor Relations Process, Eleventh Edition

William H. Holley, Jr., William H. Ross, and Roger S. Wolters

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Brief Contents

Preface xiii Acknowledgements xvi About the Authors xvii

Part 1 Recognizing Rights and Responsibilities of Unions and Management

Chapter 1 Union Management Relationships in Perspective 4

Chapter 2 The History of Labor Management Relations 43

Chapter 3 Legal Influences 89

Chapter 4 Unions and Management: Key Participants in the Labor Relations Process 134

Chapter 5 Why and How Unions Are Organized 197

Part 2 The Bargaining Process and Outcomes

Chapter 6 Negotiating the Labor Agreement 266

Chapter 7 Economic Issues 325

Chapter 8 Administrative Issues 387

Chapter 9 Resolving Negotiation (Interest) Disputes and the Use of Economic Pressure 437

Part 3 Administering the Labor Agreement

Chapter 10 Contract Administration 496

Chapter 11 Labor and Employment Arbitration 537

Chapter 12 Employee Discipline 600

Part 4 Applying the Labor Relations Process to Different Labor Relations Systems

Chapter 13 Labor Relations in the Public Sector 650

Chapter 14 Labor Relations in Multinational Corporations and in Other Countries 701

Appendix A Collective Bargaining Negotiations Exercise 756

Author Index 759

Subject Index 762

iii

Contents

Preface xiii Acknowledgements xvi About the Authors xvii

Part 1 Recognizing Rights and Responsibilities of Unions and Management

Chapter 1 Union Management Relationships in Perspective 4

Phases in the Labor Relations Process 5 Elements in the Labor Relations Process 6

Focal Point of Labor Relations: Work Rules 6 Key Participants in the Labor Relations Process 10

Three Basic Assumptions Underlying U.S. Labor Relations 13 Constraints or Influences Affecting Participants Negotiation and Administration of Work Rules 14 State of the Economy: National, Industrial, and Firm-Specific Indicators 14 International Forces 19

Labor Relations in Action: Getting Online with Labor Relations Research 21 Public Opinion 22

Union Membership 24 Labor Relations in Action: Unions and Worker Centers 25

Labor Relations in Action: Are Unions Still Relevant? 28

Case Study 1-1: Was a Troublemaker Laid Off for Sharing Wage Information? Or for Business Reasons? 37

Case Study 1-2: Discharge for Whistleblower Activity 38

Classroom Exercise 1.1: Work Rules 41

Classroom Exercise 1.2: Union Membership Trend 41

Classroom Exercise 1.3: Word Association 41

Chapter 2 The History of Labor Management Relations 43

1869 to World War I 44 Early Legal Developments Involving Labor Management Relationships (1806 1931) 45 Civil Conspiracy Doctrine 47 Application of Antitrust Legislation to Labor Unions 47 Emergence of National Labor Organizations 49

Labor Relations in Action: Labor History Time Line: Selected Events 50 The Knights of Labor (KOL) 52 Strategies to Accomplish the KOL s Goals 53 Reasons for the KOL s Failure and Demise 54 The Eight-Hour Workday Movement and the Haymarket Riot 55 Origin and Goals of the American Federation of Labor 56 Strategies and Tactics of the AFL 58 Organization of the AFL 58 The Homestead Incident 59 The Pullman Strike 60

iv

Labor Relations in Action: Unions and the Civil Rights Movement 61 The Industrial Workers of the World 63

World War I to World War II 66 Union Organizing after World War I: Problems and Prospects 66

Labor Relations in Action: The American Labor Movement as Portrayed in Fiction 67

Opposition from Employers 68 Labor s Inability to Overcome Anti-Union Sentiment 70 Rise of the CIO and Industrial Unionism 71 Strong CIO Leadership 72 Realistic Goals 72 The Effective Use of Sit-Down Strikes 73 Passage of the National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act 73 Changes in Employees Attitudes 74

World War II to the Present 74 Developments in Organized Labor since World War II 75 New Collective Bargaining Issues 75 Increased Organization of Women, Minorities, Younger Age Employees, and Professionals in the Public-Sector and Private-Sector Service Industries 77 Merger of the AFL and CIO 77 Formation of the Change to Win Federation 78 Aspects of Organized Labor Unchanged since World War II 79 Unions and Politics 79 Difficulty in Achieving Consensus among Unions and among Members 79 Pursuit of Short-Range Economic and Job Security Goals Instead of Long-Range Reform 80

Chapter 3 Legal Influences 89

Origin of Labor Relations Law 91 The Norris La Guardia Act 93 The National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 94 The National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act of 1935 95

Changes under the Labor Management Relations (Taft Hartley) Act 96 Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure (Landrum Griffin) Act 98 National Labor Relations Board 99 Labor Relations in Action: Selected Labor Relations Cases Decided by the U.S. Supreme Court and the NLRB 101

Employer and Employee Coverage under the LMRA, as Amended 104 Concerted and Protected Employee Activity 107 NLRB Unfair Labor Practice Procedure 108 Unfair Labor Practice Remedies 110 Assessment of the LMRA, as amended, and NLRB Administration 112

Transportation-Related Labor Relations Law (Railway and Airlines) 114 Assessment of the RLA 116 Deregulation Legislation in Railroads and Airlines 117 Promising Developments Regarding the RLA 117 Additional Laws That Affect Labor Relations 118 Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 118 The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 119 Bankruptcy Act 119 Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act 119 Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act of 1970 120 Employment Discrimination Laws and Executive Orders 120 Other Related Labor Relations Laws 121

Case Study 3-1: The Great Temperature Debate 128

Case Study 3-2: Independent Contractors? Or Employees? 128

Case Study 3-3: NLRB Jurisdiction over a Private Charter School 131

Case Study 3-4: Determination of Supervisory Status 132

Contents v

Chapter 4 Unions and Management: Key Participants in the Labor Relations Process 134

Goals and Strategies: Management and Unions 135 Company Strategic Planning 136 Nonunion Companies Strategies 137

Labor Relations in Action: Post-Electromation: Tests to Determine Whether Teams and their Activities Are in Violation of 8(a)(2) of NLRA 142

Unionized Companies Strategies 142 Union Strategic Planning 145 Company Organization for Labor Relations Activities 149 Union Governance and Structure 151

The Local Union 154 Differences between Local Craft and Industrial Unions 155 Government and Operation of the Local Union 157 The National or International Union 159 Leadership and Democracy 161

Labor Relations in Action: Rules Governing Union Officer Elections (U.S. Department of Labor) 162

Profile of Union Leaders 162 Administration 163 Professional Staff Members 163 Services to and Control of Locals 164 Dues, Fees, and Distribution of Funds 165 Mergers of National Unions 166 Intermediate Organizational Units 167 Independent Unions 167 Employee Associations 168 The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) 168 Organizational Structure 169

Union Corruption and the Landrum Griffin Act 175 Union Security 177

Union Security Provisions 178 Closed Shop 178 Union Shop 178 Agency Shop 179 Contingency Union Shop 181 Union Hiring Hall 181 Preferential Treatment Clause 182 Dues Checkoff 182 Right-to-Work Laws: Controversy and Effects 182 Arguments for Right to Work Laws 185 Arguments for Abolishing Right-to-Work Laws 186 Recent U.S. Supreme Court Decision 187

Case Study 4-1: Employee Rights under the Landrum Griffin Act 194

Case Study 4-2: Financial Core Membership Rights under the Beck Decision 195

Chapter 5 Why and How Unions Are Organized 197

Why Unions Are Formed 198 Work and Job Conditions 198 Employees Backgrounds and Needs 200 Influences on Employees Votes for and against Unions 201 The Union s Challenge of Organizing the Diverse Workforce 203 Organizing Professional Employees 203 Activities of the Union in Organizing Employees 205 Activities of the Company in Union Organizing 209 Unintended Consequences of Anti-Union Behavior 212 Methods for Organizing Unions 212

Labor Relations in Action: Volkswagen and the United Auto Workers Chattanooga, Tennessee 216

Labor Relations in Action: Objections to Joining the Union 218

Labor Relations in Action: Examples of Employer Messages during a Representation Election Campaign 220

Labor Relations in Action: Interesting Comparison: FedEx and UPS (United Parcel Service) 224

Duties of the Exclusive Bargaining Agent and Employer 230 After Election Loss by the Union 230 Proposed Mandatory Secret Ballot Elections versus Employee Free Choice Act (EFCA) 230

vi Contents

Conduct of the Representation Election Campaign 233 Campaign Doctrines and NLRB Policies 233 Captive Audience 24-Hour Rule 234 Polling or Questioning Employees 234 Distribution of Union Literature and Solicitation by Employees on Company Property 235 Showing Films during Election Campaigns 235 Use of E-Mail, Internet, and Social Media 236 New Union Strategies 237

Removing a Labor Union 238 Labor Relations in Action: Union Salting: A New Union-Organizing Tactic 239

Case Study 5-1: Are These Employees Engaged in a Protected Concerted Activity? 251

Case Study 5-2: Are the Employees Involved in Activities That Are Legal? 251

Case Study 5-3: Are the Field Supervisors Supervisors under the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)? 252

Case Study 5-4: Are These Employees Activities Legally Protected under the National Labor Relations Act? 253

Case Study 5-5: Did the Company Violate the Section 8(a)(1) of the LMRA When It Discharged the Employee? 255

Case Study 5-6: Bulletin Board Use 257

Case Study 5-7: Nonemployee Union Solicitation Activity 258

Case Study 5-8: Campaign Threats or Implied Promise of Benefit? 259

Case Study 5-9: The T-Shirt Offer and Picnic Photographs 261

Classroom Exercise 5.1: Designing Union Election Campaign Literature 263

Part 2 The Bargaining Process and Outcomes

Chapter 6 Negotiating the Labor Agreement 266

Collective Bargaining: Definition and Structure 267 Bargaining Structure 268 The Bargaining Unit 270

Negotiation Preparation Activities 274 Selection of the Negotiating Team and Related Bargaining Responsibilities 274 Proposal Determination and Assessment 276 Formulating Proposals 277 The Bargaining Range 279

Labor Relations in Action: Bargaining Goals for Registered Nurses 282 Costing Contract Proposals 283

Understanding Collective Bargaining Behavior: A Framework 285 Distributive and Integrative Bargaining: Two Different Approaches 285 Strategies and Tactics 286 The Bargaining Power Model 287 Factors Potentially Affecting Both Bargaining Power Equations 290 Factors Affecting a Union s Disagreement and Agreement Costs 290 Factors Affecting Management s Agreement and Disagreement Costs 291 Complexities Associated with the Bargaining Power Model 291 Attitudinal Structuring 292 Intraorganizational Bargaining 292

Ethical and Legal Considerations in Collective Bargaining 293 The Legal Duty to Bargain in Good Faith 295 Type of Bargaining Subject 295

Specific Bargaining Actions 297 Totality of Conduct 298 Bargaining over

Contents vii

Managerial Rights 300 Successor Employer Bargaining Obligations 303 Collective Bargaining under Bankruptcy Proceedings 303 Legal Remedies

Associated with Violations of the Duty to Bargain in Good Faith 304 Contract Ratification 306 Explanation of Voting Behavior 306

Labor Relations in Action: Contract Ratification Process Affecting East and Gulf Coast Ports 307

Reasons for Rejection of Tentative Contract Agreements 308 Case Study 6-1: The Funeral Leave Policy Proposal 317

Case Study 6-2: Classification of a Bargaining Subject 318

Case Study 6-3: The Influenza Work Rule 319

Case Study 6-4: Refusal to Furnish Requested Information 322

Case Study 6-5: The Mileage Reimbursement Policy 323

Chapter 7 Economic Issues 325

Industrial Wage Differentials 327 Occupational Wage Differentials and the Role of Job Evaluation and Wage Surveys 329

Evaluating Jobs within the Organization 329 Surveys to Compare Firms Wage Structures 331 Production Standards and Wage Incentives 332 Wage-Setting Criteria: Arguments Used by Management and Union Officials in Wage Determination 336

Labor Relations in Action: Living Wage Ordinances: What are They? What Are Their Effects? 337

Differential Features of the Work: Job Evaluation and the Wage Spread 338 Two-Tier Wage Plans 340

Labor Relations in Action: The Waxing and Waning of Two-Tier Wage Plans 342 Wage Comparability 343 Ability to Pay 344 Productivity 345 Cost of Living 348 Wage Adjustments during the Term or Duration of the Labor Agreement 349 Lump-Sum Pay Adjustments 351

Employee Benefits 351 Insurance and Health Benefits 352 Health Care Cost Containment 353 Income Maintenance 354 Premium Pay Overtime and Other Supplements 355 Pay for Time Not Worked Holidays, Vacations, and Rest Periods 357

Pensions 358 Family and Child-Care Benefits 362 Other Benefits 363 Union Effects on Wages and Benefits 363 Case Study 7-1: Adding Insult to Injury 378

Case Study 7-2: Unilateral Freeze of Defined Benefit Pension Plan 380

Case Study 7-3: A Change in the Medical Insurance Plan 381

Case Study 7-4: Does the Deputy Sheriff Deserve a Pay Raise? 383

Classroom Exercise 7.1: Employee Benefits 386

Chapter 8 Administrative Issues 387

Technological Change and Job Protection 388 Labor Relations in Action: High Performance Work Organization (HPWO) Partnership Principles 391

viii Contents

Benefits of Technological Change 391 Negative Effects of Technological Change 392

Job Security and Personnel Changes 393 Job Security and the Changing Psychological Contract 394 Job Security Work Rules 395 Plant Closures, Downsizing, and WARN 397 Subcontracting, Outsourcing, and Work Transfer 399

Labor Relations in Action: Creating Good Jobs Today and in the Future 402 Work Assignments and Jurisdiction 403 Work Scheduling 404

Labor Relations in Action: Computer Programming and Labor Relations 405 The Role of Seniority in Personnel Changes 406 Legal Issues Involving Seniority in Administrative Determinations 410

Employee Training 412 Work Restructuring 415 Safety and Health 416 Labor Relations in Action: Domestic Violence and Trade Unions 419

Case Study 8-1: Discharged for Facebook Comments 433

Case Study 8-2: The Outsourced Work 433

Case Study 8-3: The Disputed Safety Bonus 434

Case Study 8-4: Donning Safety Equipment? or Changing Clothes? 435

Chapter 9 Resolving Negotiation (Interest) Disputes and the Use of Economic Pressure 437

Impasse Resolution Procedures Involving a Third-Party Neutral 439 Mediation 439 Fact-Finding 442 Interest Arbitration 442

Mediation-Arbitration (Med-Arb) 446 Other Third-Party Procedures 447

Arbitration-Mediation 447 Tri-Offer Arbitration 448 Double Final-Offer Arbitration 448 Night Baseball Arbitration 449

Strikes and Lockouts: The Use of Economic Pressure to Resolve Interest Disputes 449

Replacement Workers during Strikes and Lockouts 450 Types of Strikes 451 Labor Relations in Action: 2011 National Football League Contract Negotiations and Lockout 452

Reasons for Strikes 456 Strategic Purposes of a Strike 458 Strike Experiences and Preparation 459 Reinstatement Rights of Unfair Labor Practice and Economic Strikers 463 Unlawful Strike Misconduct 465 Employee Picketing Rights 466 Secondary Strikes, Boycotts, and Picketing 466

National Emergency Dispute Resolution Procedures 471 Case Study 9-1: An Interest Arbitration Hearing 485

Case Study 9-2: Legitimate Picketing? Or Illegal Secondary Boycott? 487

Case Study 9-3: The Aftermath of a Strike 489

Case Study 9-4: The Right to Strike 491

Case Study 9-5: Denial of Health Care Benefits to Striking Employees 492

Case Study 9-6: Product Picket Activity 493

Contents ix

Part 3 Administering the Labor Agreement

Chapter 10 Contract Administration 496

Labor Relations in Action: Rules Governing Workplace Investigations 499

Grievances: Definition, Sources, and Significance 499 Reasons for Employee Grievances 502 Significance of Employee Grievances 505 Preparation for Grievance Processing 506

Steps in the Grievance Procedure 508 First Step of Grievance Procedure 509 Second Step of Grievance Procedure 511 Third Step of Grievance Procedure 511 Fourth Step of Grievance Procedure: Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) 512 Different Approaches by Grievance Mediators 513 Administrative Complexities of Processing Grievances 515 Other Forms of ADR 516

Labor Relations in Action: Tough Contract Administration Questions 517

Grievance Resolution: Relationships and Flexibility 517 Codified Relationships 518

Power Relationships 518 Empathetic Relationships 520 Flexible Consideration in Processing Employee Grievances 520

The Union s Duty of Fair Representation 522 Case Study 10-1: Are These Grievances Arbitrable? 531

Case Study 10-2: Should the Union Represent Slick Willie Owens? 534

Classroom Exercise 10.1: Arbitration Scenario 536

Chapter 11 Labor and Employment Arbitration 537

Development of Labor Arbitration 538 Elements of a Typical Arbitration Proceeding 540

Selection and Characteristics of Arbitrators 541 Decision to Arbitrate 544 Prehearing Activities 545 The Arbitration Hearing 545

Labor Relations in Action: Improving Preparation for Arbitration Hearings 548

Comparison of Arbitration and Judicial Proceedings 549 Evidence in Arbitration vs. in Judicial Proceedings 550 Arbitration in the Railway and Airline Industries 552

The Arbitrator s Decision 552 Decision-Making Guidelines Used by Arbitrators 553

Labor Relations in Action: Example of Contract Language Ambiguity 556 Past Practice 558 Previous Labor Arbitration Decisions 559

Current Issues Affecting Arbitration 560 Legal Jurisdiction 560

Labor Relations in Action: Tenets of Labor Arbitration 561 Labor Arbitration and the National Labor Relations Board 564

Labor Relations in Action: National Football League v. National Football League Players Association (Tom Brady) 566

Labor Relations in Action: Things They Never Told Me before I Became an Arbitrator 567

x Contents

Appraising Labor Arbitration s Effectiveness 567 Procedural Problems 569 Employment Arbitration 571

Labor Relations in Action: How Employment Arbitration Differs from Arbitration Found in Labor Agreements 575

Public Policy Implications for the Future 578 Case Study 11-1: Whether the Employer Violated the Contract by Implementing Fleet Operation Changes on or about June 18, 2014? If so, What Is the Appropriate Remedy? 587

Case Study 11-2: Issue: Did the Company Violate the Collective Bargaining Agreement When It Reduced the Hours of Full-Time Employees to Less than 35 Hours per Week as This Action Relates to the NLRB Charge? 592

Case Study 11-3: Should Employee Be Penalized for On-the-Job Injury? 597

Chapter 12 Employee Discipline 600

The Changing Significance of Industrial Discipline 601 Historical Overview of Employer Disciplinary Policies 601 Employment-at-Will Doctrine and Wrongful Discharge Consideration for Nonunion Employees 603 Present-Day Significance of Employee Discipline 605

Labor Relations in Action: Disciplinary Possibilities on the Assembly Line 606

Elements of the Just Cause Principle in Employee Discipline 608 Discipline for Just Cause and Discipline s Legitimate Purpose 608 Degree of Proof in Disciplinary Cases: Nature of the Evidence and Witness Credibility 610 Labor Relations in Action: Employee Discipline and Social Media 612 Effect of Work Rules on Discipline 613 Progressive Discipline 616 Disciplinary Penalty and Mitigating Circumstances 617 Possible Collision between Discharge Decisions and Public Policy 620

Labor Relations in Action: Examples of Employee Misconduct and Mitigating Factors to Consider in Employee Discipline 621

Due Process 623 Case Study 12-1: Issue: Was Mr. Babcock s Termination for Just Cause? If Not, What Is the Remedy? 635

Case Study 12-2: Falsification of Application 641

Part 4 Applying the Labor Relations Process to Different Labor Relations Systems

Chapter 13 Labor Relations in the Public Sector 650

Significance of Public-Sector Labor Relations 651 Labor Legislation in the Public Sector 652 Current Challenges to Collective Bargaining Rights of Public Unions 654

Labor Relations in Action: States That Have Passed Laws Limiting Representational Rights for Public Sector Employees Since 2010 656

Federal-Sector Labor Relations Legislation 657 Labor Relations in Action: Privatization of the Public Sector 658

Appropriate Bargaining Units and Union Recognition in the Federal Sector 660 Negotiable Subjects in the Federal Sector 660 Unfair Labor Practices

Contents xi

in the Federal Sector 661 Grievance Procedures and Arbitration in the Federal Sector 662 Labor Management Forums in the Federal Government 662

Labor Relations in Action: Arbitration under the Federal Service Labor management Relations Statute 663

Homeland Security Act 663 Labor Relations in the U.S. Postal Service 665 Similarities between Private- and Public-Sector Bargaining 666 Differences between Private-Sector and Public-Sector Bargaining 668

The Market Economy Does Not Operate in the Public Sector 668 The Relationship between the Budget and Public-Sector Bargaining Processes 669 Employee Rights and Obligations 669

Collective Bargaining Structures and Decision-Making Processes 671 Negotiable Issues and Bargaining Tactics 672 Grievance Administration 675 The Right-to-Strike Controversy 675 Discipline of Public- Sector Employees 676

Labor Relations in Action: Douglas Factors in Deciding Disciplinary Punishment of Federal Employees 677

Interest Dispute Impasse-Resolution Procedures in the Public Sector 677 Mediation 678 Fact-Finding and Arbitration of Interest Disputes 678 Effectiveness of Fact-Finding and Arbitration of Interest Disputes 680 Referendum 681 Conclusions on Public-Sector Labor Relations 682 Challenges and Opportunities for Public-Sector Unions 684

Case Study 13-1: Unions Representing Public Employees 694

Case Study 13-2: Discharge for Off-Duty Conduct 695

Chapter 14 Labor Relations in Multinational Corporations and in Other Countries 701

Multinational Corporations and Transnational Collective Bargaining 702 Union Approaches to Multinational Bargaining and Employer Reactions 706 Labor Relations in Action: Core Labor Standards 707

Obstacles for Unions in Bargaining with Multinational Corporations 708 Effects of Unions on Multinational Corporations 709 Conclusions and Predictions on Transnational Bargaining 710

Globalization and Concerns about Free Trade 710 North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC) 712

Unions in Other Countries 714 Canada 715 Mexico, Central America, and South America 719 Cuba 724

Labor Relations in Action: Two Views of Trade Unions in Cuba 725 Western Europe 725 European Union 727 Great Britain 730 Germany 731 Central and Eastern Europe Former Soviet Bloc Countries 733 Japan 734 South Korea 738 Australia 739 China 741

Classroom Exercise 14.1: Mobile Factory 755

Appendix A Collective Bargaining Negotiations Exercise 756

Author Index 759

Subject Index 762

xii Contents

Preface

This textbook is a culmination of more than 100 years of classroom teaching to more than 10,000 undergraduate and graduate college students. The eleventh edition of The Labor Relations Process reflects our original objective in writing the book: to provide stu- dents with a textbook that will generate an understanding of and appreciation for core elements of union management relationships. We have attempted to involve the student with the subject matter and to create an interest in related issues that will continue after the student completes the course. A model of the labor relations process (Exhibit 1.2) is presented in the first chapter and expanded in subsequent chapters through extensive references to academics and practitioners that focus on real-world situations and con- cerns. This provides a balance between concepts and applications for the reader.

The eleventh edition of The Labor Relations Process continues our long-standing tra- dition of being the most comprehensive text on the market.

Features of the Eleventh Edition

The objective of this text has always been to increase student involvement by focusing on applying the concepts being taught. This emphasis is unmatched by other textbooks in this area. This application generates student interest in the subject matter while enabling students to demonstrate their understanding of concepts and principles and apply this information to real-world situations. These opportunities and related efforts should sharpen readers communication skills, a desirable skill for any student, regardless of his or her academic major or intended occupation.

Application has been enhanced through Labor Relations in Action features; National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), court, or arbitration case studies at the end of most chapters; and class activity experiential exercises designed to promote active stu- dent participation in the learning process. There are updated Internet exercises called Exploring the Web at the end of each chapter to enhance student learning and appli-

cation and to create interest in independent research. The negotiation exercise with com- puter applications and the arbitration cases have been prepared for role-playing experience to promote the reality of union management relations. The book has also maintained many of the previous edition s features: a focus on currency, ethics, interna- tional issues, and real-world applications:

Chapter-Opening Vignettes. Each chapter begins with a short story or situation that prepares the reader for the chapter s subject. These encourage critical thinking and make the chapter s subject matter relevant to the student. Currency. This edition offers many opportunities for readers to become involved with the current applications of the labor relations process. For example, recent col- lective bargaining occurred with management and union officials in the auto indus- try and recent bargaining subjects such as health care costs and technological change are given expanded coverage in this edition. Ethics. Ethical issues concerning such topics as bargaining behavior, union organiz- ing, employee empowerment, and termination for union activities are addressed throughout the book.-Each chapter begins with a story that prepares the student for the subject of the chapter. These short stories make the subject s subject matter interesting to the student. Numerous opportunities for students to become involved with the labor relations process are also provided in this edition.

xiii

International Labor. Chapter 14 has been updated and expanded to include changes that have occurred in Canada, Mexico, China, Australia, and the European Union, as well as the effects of the North American Free Trade (NAFTA) Agreement. Real-World Applications. The Labor Relations in Action boxes integrate current events in labor relations and have been updated with several new applications.

Key Chapter-by-Chapter Changes in the Eleventh Edition

Each chapter has been updated with current research, laws and judicial decisions, studies, and statistics. Additional attention has been given to explaining the labor relations pro- cess and influences. Following are some of the key updates to this edition:-
This edition has been updated with the latest information on various topics. It also delves into the various facets of labor relations.

Chapter 1 features updated information on mediators, the effect of the recent U.S. economic downturn, and its effect on the labor pool, and encourages online searches on current labor relations topics, supplemented by Internet exercises in every chapter. Chapter 2 has new information about early legal developments …

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