Chlorination as a method of disinfection

Chlorination as a method of disinfection
Chlorination as a Method of Disinfection for Dairy Effluent
Effluent produced in dairy sheds poses serious health and safety risks for both dairy animals and humans, as it may contain bacteria, protozoan cysts, and viruses that can spread diseases. Disinfection is crucial to eliminate these pathogenic organisms and ensure the safety of the environment and its inhabitants (Bekink & Nozaic, 2013). Chlorination is a commonly used method for disinfecting dairy effluent, as it destroys these organisms by oxidizing their cellular material.
Chlorine is supplied in various forms such as hypochlorite solution, chlorine gas, and other chlorine compounds, which can be in liquid or solid form (Bourke, 2010). Chlorination has a long-standing history of being an effective disinfectant due to several advantages. Firstly, chlorine is more cost-effective than alternative methods such as ozone or UV disinfection. Secondly, the chlorine residual from disinfection continues to be effective even after the effluent has been treated, meaning that pathogens can still be killed even after treatment has been completed. Thirdly, this method is reliable and effective against a wide range of pathogenic organisms, and finally, it has the ability to eliminate odours, making it an environmentally friendly option (Stringer & Johnston, 2001).
However, there are also certain disadvantages to using chlorination for disinfection. Some parasites found in effluent may be resistant to chlorine, making it ineffective for certain effluent. The chlorine residual may also be unstable, especially in the presence of high concentrations of chlorine-demanding materials, requiring higher doses of chlorine for effective disinfection. Chlorination also leads to an increase in the total amount of dissolved solids in the treated effluent. Furthermore, chlorine oxidizes certain organic matter, creating a potentially hazardous compound (Werner, Valdivia-Garcia, Weir, & Haffey, 2016).
Chlorination is an effective and widely used method for disinfecting dairy effluent, providing several advantages such as cost-effectiveness, reliability, and the ability to eliminate odours. However, it also has certain disadvantages, including resistance to certain parasites, instability of the chlorine residual, and an increase in dissolved solids. It is crucial to weigh these advantages and disadvantages when considering chlorination as a method of disinfection for dairy effluent.

Bekink, M., & Nozaic, D. (2013). Assessment of a chlorine dioxide proprietary product for water and wastewater disinfection. Water SA, 39(3). doi:10.4314/wsa.v39i3.5
Bourke, M. (2010). Wastewater Disinfection. Wastewater Microbiology, 217-266. doi:10.1002/9780470901243.ch7
Stringer, R., & Johnston, P. (2001). Chlorine end use processes. Chlorine and the Environment, 25-51. doi:10.1007/978-94-015-9813-2_2
Werner, D., Valdivia-Garcia, M., Weir, P., & Haffey, M. (2016). Trihalomethanes formation in point of use surface water disinfection with chlorine or chlorine dioxide tablets. Water and Environment Journal, 30(3-4), 271-277. doi:10.1111/wej.12209

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