House work for modifying the syntactic analyzer for the connected compiler by including to the prevailing grammar. The total grammar of the language is proven under. The highlighted parts of the grammar present what it's essential to both modify or add to the prevailing grammar. perform: function_header variable physique function_header: FUNCTION IDENTIFIER [parameters] RETURNS kind ; variable: IDENTIFIER : kind IS assertion parameters: parameter , parameter parameter: IDENTIFIER : kind kind: INTEGER | REAL | BOOLEAN physique: BEGIN assertion END ; assertion: expression ; | REDUCE operator assertion ENDREDUCE ; | IF expression THEN assertion ELSE assertion ENDIF ; | CASE expression IS case OTHERS ARROW assertion ; ENDCASE ; operator: ADDOP | MULOP case: WHEN INT_LITERAL ARROW assertion expression: ( expression ) | REAL_LITERAL NOT expression expression binary_operator expression | | INT_LITERAL | IDENTIFIER | BOOL_LITERAL | binary_operator: ADDOP | MULOP | REMOP | EXPOP | RELOP | ANDOP | OROP Within the above grammar, the pink symbols are nonterminals, the blue symbols are terminals and the black punctuation are EBNF metasymbols. The braces denote repetition zero or extra instances and the brackets denote non-obligatory. It's essential to rewrite the grammar to eradicate the EBNF brace and bracket metasymbols and to include the importance of parentheses, operator priority and associativity for all operators. Amongst arithmetic operators the exponentiation operator has highest priority following by the multiplying operators after which the including operators. All relational operators have the identical priority. Among the many binary logical operators, and has increased priority than or. Of the classes of operators, the unary logical operator has highest priority, the arithmetic operators have subsequent highest priority, adopted by the relational operators and at last the binary logical operators. All operators besides the exponentiation operator are left associative. The directives to specify priority and associativity, akin to %prec and %left, will not be used Your parser ought to be capable of appropriately parse any syntactically appropriate program with none drawback. It's essential to modify the syntactic analyzer to detect and get well from further syntax errors utilizing the semicolon because the synchronization token. To perform detecting further errors an error manufacturing should be added to the perform header and one other to the variable declaration. Your bison enter file shouldn't produce any shift/cut back or cut back/cut back errors. Eliminating them might be troublesome so the most effective technique will not be introduce any. That's finest achieved by making small incremental additions to the grammar and guaranteeing that no addition introduces any such errors. An instance of compilation itemizing output containing syntax errors is proven under: 1 -- A number of errors 2 perform most important a integer returns actual; Syntax Error, Surprising INTEGER, anticipating ':' b: integer is * 2; Syntax Error, Surprising MULOP c: actual is; start if a > c then eight      b; Syntax Error, Surprising REAL_LITERAL, anticipating ';' 9      else 10          b = four.; 11      endif; 12 ; Syntax Error, Surprising ';', anticipating END Lexical Errors zero Syntax Errors four Semantic Errors zero ------------------------------------------------------------ itemizing.h // This file accommodates the perform prototypes for the features that produce the // compilation itemizing enum ErrorCategories LEXICAL, SYNTAX, GENERAL_SEMANTIC, DUPLICATE_IDENTIFIER,   UNDECLARED; void firstLine(); void nextLine(); int lastLine(); void appendError(ErrorCategories errorCategory, string message); ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- makefile compile: scanner.o parser.o itemizing.o   g++ -o compile scanner.o parser.o itemizing.o   scanner.o: scanner.c itemizing.h tokens.h   g++ -c scanner.c scanner.c: scanner.l   flex scanner.l   mv lex.yy.c scanner.c parser.o: parser.c itemizing.h   g++ -c parser.c parser.c tokens.h: parser.y   bison -d -v parser.y   mv parser.c   mv tokens.h itemizing.o: itemizing.h   g++ -c ---------------------------------------------------------- parser.y % %error-verbose %token IDENTIFIER %token INT_LITERAL %token ADDOP MULOP RELOP ANDOP %token BEGIN_ BOOLEAN END ENDREDUCE FUNCTION INTEGER IS REDUCE RETURNS %% perform:     function_header optional_variable physique ;   function_header:     FUNCTION IDENTIFIER RETURNS kind ';' ; optional_variable:   variable |   ; variable:   IDENTIFIER ':' kind IS statement_ ; kind:   INTEGER |   BOOLEAN ; physique:   BEGIN_ statement_ END ';' ;   statement_:   assertion ';' |   error ';' ;   assertion:   expression |   REDUCE operator reductions ENDREDUCE ; operator:   ADDOP |   MULOP ; reductions:   reductions statement_ |   ;   expression:   expression ANDOP relation |   relation ; relation:   relation RELOP time period |   time period; time period:   time period ADDOP issue |   issue ;   issue:   issue MULOP major |   major ; major:   '(' expression ')' |   INT_LITERAL |   IDENTIFIER ;   %% void yyerror(const char* message)   appendError(SYNTAX, message); int most important(int argc, char *argv[]) ------------------------------------------------------------------------ scanner /* Compiler Concept and Design Dr. Duane J. Jarc */ /* This file accommodates flex enter file */ % #embody #embody  utilizing namespace std; #embody "itemizing.h" #embody "tokens.h" % %possibility noyywrap ws       [ tr]+ remark       --.*n line       [n] id       [A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9]* digit       [0-9] int       + punc       [(),:;] %%        remark    line        "<"        ECHO; return(RELOP); "+"        "*"        start        boolean        finish        ECHO; return(END); endreduce    ECHO; return(ENDREDUCE); perform    integer        ECHO; return(INTEGER); is        ECHO; return(IS); cut back        ECHO; return REDUCE; returns        and        ECHO; return(ANDOP); id        ECHO; return(IDENTIFIER);        punc        .        ECHO; appendError(LEXICAL, yytext); %% ---------------------------------------------------------------- // Compiler Concept and Design // Dr. Duane J. Jarc // This file accommodates the our bodies of the features that produces the compilation // itemizing #embody #embody  utilizing namespace std; #embody "itemizing.h" static int lineNumber; static string error = ""; static int totalErrors = zero; static void displayErrors(); void firstLine()   lineNumber = 1;   printf("npercent4d ",lineNumber); void nextLine()   displayErrors();   lineNumber++;   printf("%4d ",lineNumber); int lastLine()   printf("r");   displayErrors();   printf(" n");   return totalErrors;   void appendError(ErrorCategories errorCategory, string message)   string messages[] = "Lexical Error, Invalid Character ", "",       "Semantic Error, ", "Semantic Error, Duplicate Identifier: ",       "Semantic Error, Undeclared " ;   error = messages[errorCategory] + message;   totalErrors++; void displayErrors() ----------------------------------------------------------
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