Define drug tolerance, dependence, and addiction
Answer each question in a minimum of 100 words each. Use correct spelling and grammar. Cite sources as necessary. 1.Define drug tolerance, dependence, and addiction, and explain some common misconceptions about addiction. 2.Compare and contrast classical and operant conditioning. How are they alike? How do they differ? Provide an example of each 3.Compare Gardner’s and Sternberg’s theories of multiple intelligences. Which do you find more applicable to your own experience? Why?
Drug tolerance, dependence, and addiction are all related terms that describe different aspects of a person’s relationship with drugs or other substances.
Tolerance refers to the body’s ability to adapt to a drug over time, so that more of the drug is needed to achieve the same effect. Dependence refers to a physical or psychological need for a drug, such that cessation of the drug causes withdrawal symptoms. Addiction refers to a compulsive use of a drug despite negative consequences.
One common misconception about addiction is that it is a choice or a moral failing. However, research has shown that addiction is a complex disease that is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors.
Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to associate two previously unrelated stimuli. An example of this would be a dog learning to associate the sound of a bell with the experience of receiving food.
Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is a type of learning in which an organism learns to associate a behavior with a consequence. An example would be a rat learning to press a lever in order to receive a food reward.
Classical and operant conditioning are similar in that they are both forms of associative learning, but they differ in the type of stimuli that are associated. Classical conditioning involves the association of an innate response to a previously neutral stimulus, while operant conditioning involves the association of a behavior with a consequence.
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences suggests that there are multiple types of intelligence, including linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, and others. Sternberg’s theory of multiple intelligences, on the other hand, focuses on three types of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical.
Personally, I find Gardner’s theory more applicable to my own experience as it includes other forms of intelligences than just the analytical, creative and practical which is more comprehensive. Also, Gardner’s theory highlights the fact that people have different strengths and weaknesses, and that intelligence is not limited to traditional academic abilities.