Compare and contrast deontology and utilitarianism and provide one example of both.
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Deontology and utilitarianism are two ethical theories that approach morality differently. Deontology, first proposed by Immanuel Kant, holds that moral rules and duties are absolute and should be followed regardless of their consequences. Utilitarianism, on the other hand, proposes that the moral value of an action should be judged based on its ability to promote overall happiness or utility. (Reference: “Ethics: The Basics” by John Skorupski (2018))
One example of deontology in action is a doctor refusing to participate in torture, even if it would produce valuable information, because it would violate the doctor’s duty to do no harm.
A case of utilitarianism in action is a government passing a law to legalize euthanasia, as it would promote the overall happiness of terminally ill patients who wish to end their suffering.
Reference: “Deontology and Utilitarianism in Healthcare Ethics: A Critical Comparison” by S.J. Blunt and R.J. Levine (2016)