English Vocabulary in Use Chapter 21/58

Chapter 21| | Rewarding| Provides you loads of constructive experiences| Fruitful| Produces good outcomes| Profitable| Makes some huge cash| Therapeutic| Makes you wholesome in physique and/or thoughts| Stress-free/calming| Reduces stress, offers a peaceable feeling| Time-consuming| Takes a very long time to do| Tradition vulture| Large fan of something cultural| Sofa potato| Bodily very inactive individual| Dabbler| One who by no means retains doing one exercise for lengthy| Doer| One who believes in performing and doing issues, not simply pondering| Shopaholic| Individual hooked on purchasing: examine alcoholic: hooked on alcohol| Is… into| Casual: takes an important curiosity in/may be very concerned in| Went off| Casual: stopped liking/misplaced curiosity| Locks herself away| Isolates herself from the world| Hooked on| Casual: is hooked on| Stand up to| Casual: do| Full diary| Plenty of commitments/actions| Chapter 22| | Scruff| Soiled and untidy individual| Pastel| In pale colors| Energy outfits| Formal garments to make you appear highly effective| Frumpy| Old school and boring| Outfit| Set of garments for a specific event| Costume codes| Accepted means of dressing in a specific social group| Costume down| Put on much less formal garments| Sensible-casual| Garments which are casual, however clear, tidy and trendy| Dressy| Appropriate for formal events| Skimpy| Shut-fitting, utilizing little materials| Dishevelled| Unfastened eg. Of sweater| Snazzy| Trendy, fashionable| To be dressed to kill| Put on garments to draw individuals’s sexual consideration| Designer (label) garments| Costly garments| Off the peg/rack| Low-cost garments| On the excessive avenue| Low-cost garments| Off the cuff| With out having ready something| To be hand in glove with somebody| To have a detailed working relationship with somebody| Cloak-and-dagger| Involving secrecy and thriller| To have/take the shirt of somebody’s again| Somebody’s final possession| On a shoestring| Spending as little as potential| With out frills| Easy and plain| To place somebody in a straitjacket | Limit somebody’s freedom| To put on the trousers| To be the dominant accomplice in a wedding| Chapter 23| | Squat | An empty constructing the place individuals begin residing with out proprietor’s permission| Hovel| Very poor, soiled home or flat in unhealthy situation| Pied a terre| Small flat/home in a metropolis owned/rented by individuals along with their most important home and used when visiting the town| Penthouse| Luxurious flat on the prime of a constructing| Council housing| Supplied by state for individuals who can't afford own residence| Excessive-rise flats| Flats in tall trendy constructing with loads of flooring| Granny flat| Set of rooms for an aged individual, linked to relations home| The rat race| Disagreeable means through which individuals wrestle competitively for wealth and energy| Fengshui| A Chinese language philosophy place of buildings and preparations of objects of their dwelling have an effect on well being and well-being individuals. | Minimalism| A method involving utilizing the smallest potential vary of supplies, colors and so on. solely the most straightforward shapes/designs| Put up-modernism| A method of structure. The humanities and so on. widespread 1980’s – 1990’s| New age| A lifestyle and pondering developed late 1980’s, consists of big selection of beliefs and actions not accepted by most individuals| Subsistence farming| The place individuals reside by rising simply sufficient meals for their very own household| A family phrase/identify| One thing everybody is aware of| A drink on the home| A free drink| Residence truths| Data that's true however not nice or welcome| Nothing to put in writing dwelling about| Nothing particular| Hit dwelling| Change into totally understood or totally felt| That’s the story of my life| That’s what at all times occurs to me| Have the time of your life| Have an exquisite time| Get a brand new lease of life| Change into extra energetic and lively than earlier than| A canine’s life| A really sad and troublesome life| Chapter 24| | Socialising| Spending leisure time with different individuals| A housewarming (occasion)| Get together to have fun shifting into a brand new home or flat| A launch (occasion)| Get together to have fun the publication of e book/new product| A flowery costume occasion| Get together the place everybody attire up in costume as different individuals| A stag occasion| Get together earlier than the marriage for husbands and male mates| A women’ night time out/a hen occasion| A night for simply feminine mates. Hen occasion: for a marriage. | A reception| Formal occasion| Wedding ceremony occasion| Foremost group of shut household and mates at a marriage| Black tie/white tie| Formal occasion with black bow ties or white bow ties| Networking| Making contacts that might be helpful enterprise/profession| Old-fashioned tie/outdated boy community| Contacts made by the youngsters of the higher class whereas at costly non-public faculty| Professional-active| Taking motion your self moderately than ready for one thing to occur| Put themselves about| Casual: make themselves seen within the hope of being seen by somebody necessary| Climb the profession ladder| Getting increased up in your profession| To hobnob/hobnobbing| Destructive affiliation, to be pleasant with somebody who's necessary or well-known| To rub shoulders with| Casual: combine socially with people who find themselves well-known| Hangs out with/knock round with| Spends social time with| A bash/do/get-together/booze up| A celebration, booze up = colloquial a number of alcohol| Outstaying my welcome| To host = staying to lengthy| Get together animal| Somebody who loves going to events| Get together pooper| Somebody who spoils events by being disapproving/depressing| Clubbing| Going to a number of nightclubs| In town| Benefit from the leisure in a city| Chummy/pally| Pleasant| Cliquey| Destructive phrase for small group of people that spend time collectively and don't permit others to hitch them| An merchandise | Having a romantic relationship| Stood me up| Failed to show up on a date| Drop him| Finish our relationship| Gone on a pub crawl| Gone to spend a night going to a number of totally different pubs| Chapter 25| | Overrated| Inferior to individuals say| Hackneyed| Executed so usually it's boring| Impenetrable| Complicated and unimaginable to know| Disjointed| Unconnected and never clear so as| Far-fetched| Inconceivable to consider| Risque| Barely immoral and prone to shock individuals| Gripping| Thrilling and retaining your consideration the entire time| Harrowing| Extraordinarily upsetting| Shifting| Making you're feeling sturdy emotion, particularly pity or unhappiness| Memorable| You bear in mind it lengthy after| Understated| Executed or expressed in a easy however enticing fashion| Panned| Very negatively criticised| Lauded| Extremely praised| Bombed| Was a failure| Awards| Prized/honours| Up-and-coming| Prone to turn into very well-known or profitable| Masterpiece| Very nice murals| Was miscast| Was the mistaken actor for the function| Encores| Calls from the viewers to repeat it| Standing ovation| The viewers stood up and applauded| Interpretation| Means of understanding and performing it| Model| Considered one of a number of performances that exist| Rendition| Efficiency on a selected event| Portrayal| The image she created| Chapter 26| | Pulling the wool over… eyes| Deceiving| Philistinism| Lack of ability to understand artwork or tradition| Detractors| Critics| Wised up| Change into extra refined| Dumbed down| Change into much less mental| Tate trendy| New trendy artwork gallery in London| Renaissance| Interval of recent curiosity within the arts, Europe 14th/16th century| Fad| A brief enthusiasm for one thing| Vote with their toes| Cease coming| Impressionism| Sorts of artist and colleges of the final 150 years| Cubist| Sorts of artist and colleges of the final 150 years| Surrealists/surrealism| Sorts of arts and colleges of the final 150 years| Deemed| Thought-about (formal)| Visually literate| Educated with regard to artwork| Proof against/inured to| Not affected by| Opposites within the brackets| | Intellectual (lowbrow)| Meant for educated, clever individuals = disapproving| Impenetrable (clear)| Extraordinarily obscure| Refined (primitive)| Displaying superior abilities and understanding| Difficult (undemanding)| Demanding appreciable effort to be understood| Dazzling (pedestrian)| Inspiring nice admiration as a result of it's good not directly| Evocative (uninspiring)| Calling up photographs and reminiscences| Beautiful (clumsy)| Having uncommon magnificence or delicacy| Intriguing (dreary)| Attention-grabbing as a result of it's unusual or mysterious| Peerless (run-of-the-mill)| Higher than every other| Tongue-in-cheek (earnest)| Not supposed to be taken significantly regardless of showing severe| Chapter 27| | lurb| Quick textual content on the again of a e book describing what the e book is about| Poignant chronicle| A shifting and unhappy description of a sequence of occasions| Compelling story| Highly effective story that retains you | Lugubrious setting| Somewhat darkish and gloomy setting/state of affairs| Web page-turner| Very fascinating and fascinating story| Enigmatic story| Mysterious story| Macabre| Typically merciless or disgusting, involved with useless| Chilling| Inflicting nice concern| Breath taking achievement| Wonderful achievement| Wry humour| Humour within the face of a foul state of affairs| Evocative scenes| Scenes which arouse reminiscences or photographs| Journal| 1. A written file of what you’ve accomplished every day 2. An instructional publication containing articles, reporting analysis, new theories and so on. ublished at common intervals| Memoirs| Written file of individual’s personal life, usually by politician or navy determine| Anthology| Assortment of, for instance, poems or quick tales from totally different authors| Compendium| Assortment of detailed, concise details about a specific topic| Manuel| Often a technical e book with directions| Logbook| Ebook that data occasions and instances and so on. ship, airplane and so on. | Compulsive studying| Formal: troublesome to cease when you’ve began| Can’t put down| Casual: troublesome to cease when you’ve began| Light-weight| Not complicated, barely detrimental connotation| Bedtime studying| Good to learn in mattress| Heavy going| Tough to learn| Get into| Change into concerned/engaged with| Chapter 28| | Artificial| Created from synthetic substances| Healthful| Good for you, bodily or morally| Wholemeal| Containing all of the pure substances within the grain with nothing eliminated| Honest Commerce| Refers to merchandise corresponding to espresso, tea, chocolate marketed in such a means that the small farmers in growing international locations who produce them get the earnings moderately than massive multinational firms | Free-range| Referring to cattle that aren't stored in cages| GM| Genetically modified, i. e. the genes of a pure product have been altered not directly| Loopholes| Methods of getting spherical rules| Derivatives| Issues produced from| Recipe for| State of affairs positive to result in| All of the elements of| All the mandatory traits| Dilute| Make much less dominant| Stew| Fear or undergo particularly about one thing you suppose is his fault| Grilled | Requested loads of questions| Half-baked| Unrealistic or not thought by way of correctly| Boost| Make extra full of life| Unsavoury| Disagreeable, morally offensive| Turned bitter| Went mistaken| Juicy| Thrilling and fascinating| Chapter 29| | Break up the invoice| Every individual pays for him/herself| Is on me| Casual: I'm paying for you| Be a part of us| Include us| Be our visitor| Formal: we pays| Get this| Casual: pay the invoice this time| Wined and dined| Invited out to eating places| Impeccable| Good, can’t be faulted| Sluggish| Somewhat gradual| Courteous| Well mannered| Sullen| Unhealthy-tempered/unwilling to smile| Overbearing| Too assured/too inclined to inform individuals what to do| Brusque| Fast and impolite| Off-putting| Makes you're feeling you don’t need to go there once more| Exit of their means| Do every thing potential| Have a candy tooth| Love candy issues| Depend the energy/calorie aware| Watch out what number of energy I eat| Savoury| Salty in flavour or with herbs| Fussy eater| One who has very explicit calls for when consuming| Teetotal| By no means drink alcohol| Dietary necessities| Formal: particular wants/issues somebody can’t eat| Overdo it| Eat or drink an excessive amount of| Take pot luck| Eat what we’re consuming, nothing particular| Deliver a bottle| Often means a bottle of wine| Banquet| Somewhat formal dinner with visitors| Casual get-together| Casual group of individuals assembly for a meal/drinks and so on. | Seconds| A second serving to/serving of a dish| Say when| Inform me when I've served sufficient| When! | That’s sufficient, thanks| Nibbles| Thinks like nuts, crisps and so on. earlier than a meal| Seize a chunk to eat| Have a fast meal| Take away| Prepared-cooked meal purchased to take dwelling| Chapter 30| | Give means/give means sing| Geef voorrang/voorrangsbord| Has the appropriate of means| Is allowed to go earlier than different visitors| Sounding/hooting/tooting your horn| Claxoneren| Leaping at pink mild| Not stopping at| Reckless driving| Very harmful driving, with none take care of others| Drink-driving| Driving while you’ve drank an excessive amount of alcohol| Breathalyser| Instrument you breathe into to measure alcohol stage| Hit-and-run| Working over/into somebody and never stopping| Ban| Elimination of 1’s driving licence| Penalty factors| Destructive pints in your licence that are added up over time| On-the-spot-fines| Given on the scene of the offence| Exhaust emissions| Waste gases produced by the car| Highway worthy| In a situation that it may be pushed safely| Tyre tread| The depth of the grooves within the tyre rubber| Tailback| Line of gradual or stopped visitors| Pile-up| Crash between a number of or many automobiles| Diverted| Directed away from our street| Tow away zone| Space the place your automotive could also be taken away if you happen to park illegally| Clamped| Fitted with a steel system on the wheel to stop it from shifting| Highway rage| Anger or violence between drivers due to troublesome driving circumstances| Skidded| Misplaced management of the steering| Head-on collision| Two autos hitting one another immediately within the entrance| Air-bags| Baggage in your automotive that blow up while you crash | Chapter 31| | Scheduled flight| Regular common flights| Constitution flight| Particular flight taking a gaggle of individuals often to the identical vacation vacation spot| Apex| Fares usually must be booked a set no. of days prematurely| Worth for cash/finances| Fare often cheaper| Restrictions| e. g. you possibly can solely journey on sure days| Non-refundable| You'll be able to’t get you a refund| Cancellation charge| Cash you pay while you cancel| Stopover| You could keep someplace in a single day earlier than persevering with to you vacation spot| All-in packages| Usually embrace lodging and transfers| Transfers| e. g. us or coach to and from you lodge| Crossing| Sea journey on a ferry| Go on a cruise| Vacation on the ocean| The vacation of a lifetime| One you'll at all times bear in mind| Berth/shared cabin| A mattress in a cabin with different individuals| Deluxe cabin| Greater and extra snug| Higher deck| The upper a part of the ship| Unique| Uncommon or thrilling| Get away from all of it| Escape you day by day life and routines| Getting round| Casual: travelling to totally different locations| Limitless mileage| You'll be able to journey as many miles as you want for a similar value| Extras| e. g. accident insurance coverage| Go as you please| Go the place you need while you need| Self-catering| The place you do your individual cooking| Chalet| Small cottage or cabin specifically constructed for vacation makers| Visitor homes| Personal houses providing excessive normal lodging | Inns| Much like pubs, but in addition providing lodging, often lovely outdated buildings| B and B| Mattress-and-breakfast| Half board| Often breakfast and one different meal| Full board| All meals| Chapter 32| | Escape the gang| Go the place there aren't many individuals| Wander of the crushed monitor| Go to locations vacationers don’t usually go| Get again to nature| Stay a pure rural fashion of life| A promising selection| A selection which might be an excellent one| Boasts| This use of boast is for itemizing the great qualities of a spot (formal)| Hordes| Crowds, in a detrimental sense| Tourism sector| Vacationer trade (formal)| Searching for one thing out of the peculiar| Frequent collocation: in search of one thing totally different/uncommon| Wealth of| Great amount of (formal)| Virgin| Authentic and pure| Natural world | Crops and animals (Latin) mounted phrase| Ecotourism| Holidays that respect the atmosphere| Unwind| Loosen up, scale back your normal stage of stress| Recharge| Get again you vitality| The bush| A time period for the wild, tree- or grass- coated areas in Africa or Australia| 4x4| 4 by 4: autos with driving energy in any respect four wheels| Waterfront| On the sting of the ocean or of a river| Discerning| Who is aware of what he/she desires by way of good high quality| Beautiful| Extraordinarily lovely| Unbeatable| No different firm can provide cheaper ones for a similar service| Awe-inspiring| If fills you with a way of energy and fantastic thing about what you’re taking a look at| Rambled, hikes, treks| These phrases symbolize a scale of size and issue| Ramble| Lengthy nice stroll, not too demanding| Hike| Extra demanding, suggesting harder terrain| Trek| Often of a number of days over wild nation| Unrivalled| No different vacation programme can match this| Savour| A phrase usually utilized in ads which means take pleasure in| Heartland| The inland areas furthest from the ocean or from borders with different international locations| Chapter 33| | Susceptible to| Tending to have a specific detrimental attribute| Arid| Dry| Drought| Interval with out rain| Tundra| Space in north with no bushes and completely frozen floor| Vegetation| Vegetation| Coniferous| Timber which are evergreen (inexperienced all 12 months spherical) and produce cones, not like deciduous bushes, which lose their leaves in winter| Prairies| Flat grasslands in Canada and Northern USA| Paddy fields| Fields planted with rice rising in water| Cereals| Sort of grass cultivated to provide a grain i. e. a meals plant like rice, wheat or maize| Have a tendency| Care for animals| Manufacturing| Producing items in massive numbers| Forefront| In an necessary place| Generates| Produces| Are descended from| Are associated to| Ancestors| Kinfolk from earlier instances: we're our ancestors’ descendants| Migrants| Individuals who transfer to reside out of the country| Emigrant| Somebody who leaves a rustic| Immigrant| Somebody who strikes to reside in a rustic| Settled| Made their houses| Chapter 34| | Formal:| Casual:| Chilly| Freezing/nippy| Sizzling| Boiling/sweltering/roasting| Windy| Blowy/breezy | Oppressive/sultry| Stifling/heavy/shut| Downpour/deluge| Chucking it down/ it’s pouring| Humid| Muggy/clammy| Local weather metaphors:| | Local weather of mistrust| Local weather of change| Cultural/present/financial / monetary /ethical/ political / social/ prevailing local weather| Sunny disposition| …frosty reception| Job prospects are sunny| Snowed underneath with work| She mentioned icily| Snowed underneath with work| Underneath a cloud of suspicion| Cloud you judgement| Hail of bullets| Hail/storm of abuse| In a haze| Hazy thought| Within the mists of| Misty-eyed| Whirlwind of hypothesis| Whirlwind romance| Thunderous applause| The horses thundered down the race monitor| Winds of change/discontent/democracy| Chapter 35| | Cement| Make constructing/relationships stronger| Brick wall| Metaphorically: a barrier| Ceiling| Can be utilized to counsel a restrict to one thing| Glass ceiling| Phrase used to seek advice from invisible barrier that stops individuals, particularly girl, from rising to prime positions at work| Roof| As metaphor: the roof fell on my world, the day he died. | Undergo the roof| Colloquial phrase: 1. If costs undergo the roof, they improve in a speedy, uncontrolled trend. 2. Individual goes by way of the roof, generally used to imply lose one’s mood hit the roof| Tower| Conveys an thought of distance from peculiar individuals| Ivory tower| Somebody residing in it = she or he doesn't know concerning the disagreeable and peculiar issues that occur in life| Tower of energy| About an individual = extraordinarily sturdy (emotional)| Towers above| Excellent in some constructive means| Gateway to| Metaphorical: present entry| Door| Like gateway to and different metaphorical phrases: * closed shut loads of doorways * opens door * shut the door on our previous.. | Doing one thing by way of/by the again door| Recommend doing it unofficially| Key| Metaphorical phrases: * present/maintain the important thing to… * the important thing to success * key figures| Chapter 36| | Seed(s)| Typically used to speak concerning the begin of an thought or feeling: * the seeds of success * the seeds of discontent * the seeds of revolution| Root(s)| Is used to counsel the origins of one thing: * the foundation of an issue * the roots of a convention * deeply/firmly rooted collocation| going again to your roots| going again to the place the place your loved ones come from| placing down roots| settling down and making your property in a single place| take root| Concept turns into recognized or accepted| Grass roots| Is the peculiar individuals of an organisation, not the leaders| Stem| Used as verb to indicate that one thing originates in one thing else| A department| One thing that grows off or branches out from most important organisation: * branches of a store * enterprise branching out in new instructions| Bud| Flower earlier than it opens. | Nipped within the bud| Stopped earlier than it develops into one thing| Budding (adjective)| Displaying promise of future improvement| Weed out| Get rid off| Prune again| Reduce/restrict| Is reaping the reward of| Is getting outcomes from| Have dug up| Have found| Was germinating| Was starting to develop| Have been sprouting| Have been showing shortly in massive numbers| Is flourishing| Is doing very nicely| Sheds| Loses| Shed staff / traditions /worries / inhibitions / weight| Lose….. | fading| (metaphorically) changing into smaller| Shrivelling| (metaphorically) changing into much less| Wilt| (metaphorically) lose vitality| Look/look/comment can wither or be withering| Make the recipient really feel scorned| Chapter 37| | Mammal| Animal that provides delivery to reside infants, not eggs, and feeds them by itself milk| Rodent| e. g. mouse, rat| Reptile| e. g. snake, lizard| Carnivore| Animal that eats meat| Herbivore| Animal that eats grass/vegetation| Predator| Animal that hunts/eats different animals| Docile| Behaves very gently| Tame| Not afraid of people| Domesticated| Lives with ore is utilized by people| Wild| Reverse of domesticated| Savage| Extraordinarily violent or wild| Fierce | Behaves aggressively| Pure habitat| Most popular pure place for residing and breeding| Recreation reserves/sport parks| Areas of land the place animals are protected against looking, and so on. | Hen sanctuary| Protected space the place birds can reside and breed| Animal shelter| Place the place cats, canine, horses, and so on. hich don't have any dwelling are given meals and a spot to reside| Blood sports activities| Sports activities whose goal is to kill or injure animals| The fur commerce| The looking and promoting of animal furs for coats, jackets, and so on. | Poachers| Individuals who hunt animals illegally| The ivory commerce| The shopping for and promoting of ivory from elephants’ tusks| Animal rights activists| Individuals who actively marketing campaign for the safety and rights of animals| Chapter 38| | Shrinking habitats| Locations the place animals reside and breed that are reducing in measurement| Endangered species| Sorts of animals/crops that are in peril of now not present| International warming| Regular rise in common world temperatures| Climatic modifications| Modifications within the climate/local weather| Carbon dioxide emissions| Carbon dioxide fuel from factories, automobiles, and so on. | Fossil fuels| Coal, oil, and so on. | Greenhouse impact| Warming of the Earth’s floor brought on by air pollution| Exerts extreme strain on| Formal: places strain on| Finite sources| Restricted sources| Ecological steadiness| Stability of pure relationships within the atmosphere| Deforestation| Destruction/clearing of forests| Demographic projections| Forecasts concerning the inhabitants| The worst case situations| The worst potentialities for the longer term| Pristine environments| Completely clear/untouched/unspoilt areas| Inexperienced credentials| Popularity for constructive assist of the atmosphere| Prophets of doom and gloom| Individuals who at all times benefit from miserable or pessimistic forecasts for the longer term| Sustainable improvement| Improvement of trade, and so on. hich doesn't threaten the atmosphere or social and financial stability| Piecemeal conservation| Finishing up conservation one bit at a time, with no general plan| Chapter 39| | Immediate| Fast, at once| Question| Query or enquiry about service| Conscious of complaints| They hear, take them significantly and act| Accommodating| Keen to know and assist| Obtained again to me| Known as me with a solution to my question| Impeccable| 100% excellent| Obliging| Keen and glad to do issues for you | Incompetent| Failing by way of inadequate ability, data or coaching| Impersonal| Missing a private aspect| Shoddy| Poor high quality (of service or of products)| Substandard| Under the usual anticipated (usually used about actions)| Uncooperative| Not supportive, unwilling to work collectively| Backlog| Quantity that are ready to be handled| Sense of urgency| Feeling that your request is necessary or pressing| Helpline| Phone quantity the place you will get assist when you have issues| Put you on maintain| Make you wait| Underneath assure/guarantee| Having a written promise by an organization to restore or exchange a defective product| Safe website| Internet tackle the place no exterior individual can learn your particulars| Privateness coverage/secure transactions| Enterprise exchanges which defend, e. g. your bank card from use by another person| FAQ| Continuously requested questions| Browse| Take a look at the listing of products/providers provided earlier than shopping for| Rapid dispatch| Items might be despatched without delay| Nationwide| Overlaying the entire nation| Chapter 40| | Touchdown card| Kind together with your private particulars and date of arrival| Customs declaration type| Kind displaying how a lot cash and what items you're carrying| Vaccination certificates| Paper proving you've gotten had the mandatory well being injections| Entry restrictions| Guidelines about who can enter a rustic and for a way lengthy| Spot checks/random checks| Checks accomplished with out warning| Sniffer canine| Specifically skilled canine who can odor medicine and bombs| Clear customs| Take your luggage by way of customs| Port of entry| The port or airport the place you first enter a rustic | Political asylum| Permission to remain out of the country to keep away from political persecution again dwelling| Financial migrants| Individuals who attempt to enter from poorer international locations simply to get work| Offences| Offence is a proper phrase for an unlawful motion| Mounted penalty| Mounted sum payable for a specific offence| On-the-spot high-quality| Tremendous payable on the time and place that you just commit the offence| Parking tickets| Papers locations on driver’s windscreens fining them for unlawful parking| Breathalyser| An instrument which you blow into that whose when you have consumed alcohol not too long ago| Make an announcement| Say what occurred and signal a replica of it| Cease-and-search| Energy to cease individuals and search them on the street| Surveillance cameras| Cameras that file every thing that occurs| Search warrant| Official permission from a choose or Justice of the Peace to look your home| Safety forces| Typically a reputation for the military and police collectively implementing the legislation| Plain garments/undercover police| Police who don't put on uniform| Paramilitary police| Police who're extra like troopers than civilian cops| Drug squad| Coverage specifically skilled to combat the unlawful drug commerce| Anti-corruption squad| Police specifically skilled to find and combat bribery/corruption| Chapter 41| | Adherent (of)| An individual who helps a specific thought or occasion| Convert (to)| Somebody who has taken on a brand new set of beliefs| Fanatic| (disapproving) somebody with a really sturdy perception| Radical| Somebody who believes there needs to be excessive political change, both of a left- or right-wing nature| Reactionary| (disapproving) somebody who opposed to alter or new concepts| Bigot| (disapproving) somebody with sturdy unreasonable beliefs who thinks that anybody with different beliefs is mistaken| Feminism| Motion that seeks equal political and social proper for girls | Assumption| Unquestioning acce3ptance that one thing is true| Derives from| Has its origins in| Eradicate| Abolish or do away with| Postulates| Fundamental ideas| Consciousness| Consciousness| Usher in| Introduce| Credible| Plausible| Credulous| Too prepared to consider what you’re advised| Incredulous| Not wanting or in a position to consider one thing| Credence| (formal) acceptance that one thing is true| Gullible| Simply tricked into believing issues that might not be true| Ingenuous| Trusting, honest, usually in a means that appears silly| (im)believable| (un)convincing| Ascribe/attribute| (formal) you think about one thing to be precipitated, created or possessed by that individual or factor| A tenet| One of many ideas on which a perception is predicated| Give somebody the advantage of the doubt| To just accept that somebody is telling the reality even if you happen to thought it's not sure| Take one thing with a pinch of alt| You don't completely consider what you're advised| I don’t purchase that! A possible storyWhat d’you are taking me for? I wasn’t born yesterday! Pull the opposite one! I’ll consider it once I see it! | (casual) I don’t consider it (but)| Chapter 42| | Superstitious| Have illogical beliefs about hidden forces in nature| Centenary/bi-centenary| 100th anniversary/ 200th anniversary| Penance| Actions to indicate you're sorry for unhealthy deeds| Fasting| Not consuming for a protracted interval| Flamboyant| Extraordinarily vibrant and exaggerated| Raucous| Very noisy| Sombre| Severe, heavy and unhappy| Atmospheric| Had a particular feeling or ambiance| Commemorates| Formal: respects and remembers formally| Chapter 43| | Syntax| The grammar and phrase order| Modality| Meanings corresponding to risk and necessity| Modal verbs| Like should, may and may| Phonology| The sound system| Phonemes| Totally different sounds that distinguish meanings| Diphthongs| Sounds made by combining vowels, corresponding to ? and ei| Lexicon| Technical time period for vocabulary| Compounds| Phrases shaped by combining phrases| Graeco-Latin| Initially from Greek and Latin| Anglo-Saxon| Language of England from 500-100 AD| Orthography| Technical time period for writing programs| Characters| Letters or symbols| Pictograms| Characters representing photos| Ideograms| Characters representing concepts/ideas| Morphology| How phrases are shaped| Morphemes| Items of which means| Inflected| Phrases have endings to indicate tense, individual, individual, and so on. | Isolating| Every phrases had just one morpheme| Chapter 44| | Feudal| Referring to a social system strictly organised in keeping with rank typical of e. g. Europe within the Center Ages| Medieval| Of or from the center ages i. e. 1000-1500 AD| Renaissance| Interval of recent development of curiosity and exercise within the arts particularly in Europe within the 14th to 16th centuries| Victorian| Referring to the interval 1837-1901 when Victoria was Queen of Britain – related to values of self-control, onerous work, loyalty, sturdy spiritual beliefs| Infantry| Troopers on foot| Cavalry| Troopers on horseback| Legion| Roman military| swimsuit of) armour| Steel protecting clothes worn by troopers| Chariot| Two-wheeled car pulled by a horse and utilized in historic instances for racing and struggle| Galleon| Giant crusing ship with three or 4 masts utilized in commerce and struggle within the 15th to 18th centuries| Stagecoach | Coated car pulled by horses that carries passengers and items on common routes| Cart | Open car with two or 4 wheels and pulled by an animal| Serf| Individual engaged on the land who legally belongs to his grasp| Jester| One who entertained individuals within the Center Ages with jokes| Minstrel| One who entertained individuals within the Center Ages with music and poetry| Highwayman| Man on horseback who robbed travellers on roads| Chapter 45| | Absolute poverty| Is defenced in keeping with an absolute minimal normal, usually known as ‘poverty line’| Relative poverty| Means that you're poor in relation to these round you| Revenue poverty| Means that you're poor when you have much less cash than the outlined poverty line on your nation| Human poverty| Takes into consideration different components, corresponding to life expectancy, toddler malnutrition, illiteracy and lack of meals or clear water| Malnutrition| In poor health well being brought on by insufficient meals| Illiteracy| Lack of ability to learn or write| Sanitation| Methods for taking soiled water and waste from houses to make sure good hygiene| GDP| Gross Home Product: the whole worth of all the products and providers produced in a rustic in a single 12 months, excluding earnings obtained from overseas| GNP| Gross Nationwide Product is GDP plus cash earned from overseas by firms primarily based in that nation| Poverty alleviation| Lowering the extent of poverty| Debt servicing| Paying again cash owed on loans| Penury| The state of being extraordinarily poor| The breadline| Having the extent of earnings of an especially poor individual| Impoverished| Poor, with out a lot cash to reside on| Destitute| With out cash, meals, dwelling or possessions| Disadvantaged| Not having the issues crucial for a pleasing life- meals, dwelling, cash| Dwelling from hand to mouth| Having simply sufficient cash to reside with out struggling| Cash has been tight| There has not been a lot cash| Chapter 46| | Laws| Legislation making| Constituents| Individuals who elected on MP| Lobbies| Curiosity teams who attempt to affect MPs| Firms| Giant firms| Institute of Administrators| Organisation of prime enterprise individuals| Ministers| MPs with prime obligations, e. g. for well being, schooling| Civil servants| Individuals employed in authorities departments (the Civil Service)| Lobbyists| Individuals who foyer| Chancellor of the Exchequer| Finance minister (within the UK)| Annual finances| Yearly monetary plan (of tax charges, and so on. )| Petitions| Formal requests usually signed by a number of individuals| Tax concessions| Reductions in taxes| Producers| Manufactures: an individual or enterprise that makes one thing| Centralised| Concentrated in a single central organisation| Shut-knit| With shut ties to one another| Properly-funded| With loads of monetary assist| Customers| Individuals who use/purchase merchandise| Fragmented| Separate; not centralised| Pals of the Earth| Giant environmental organisation| Baby Poverty Motion Group| Giant organisation serving to youngsters| Paid-up members| Individuals who have paid their membership charges, i. e. ommitted members| Deputations| Individuals despatched to talk for a gaggle| Counter| Oppose| Grievances| Complaints about unfair remedy| Enchantment to| Request assist from| Chapter 47| | To abrogate a legislation/treaty| To deliver a legislation/treaty to an official finish| To bend the legislation/guidelines| To interrupt the legislation/guidelines in a means that's thought of to not be dangerous| To contravene a legislation| To interrupt a legislation| To question a president/governor| To make a proper assertion saying that an individual in public workplace has dedicated a severe offence| To infringe somebody’s rights| To forestall an individual doing what they're legally allowed to do| To lodge an enchantment| To make an official enchantment| To uphold/overturn a verdict| To say that a earlier choice was right/incorrect| To pervert the course of justice| To place obstacles in the best way of justice being accomplished| To squash a choice/conviction| To vary a earlier official choice/conviction| To set a precedent| To ascertain a choice which should, in English legislation, be taken into consideration in future choices| To award/grant custody to| To provide one father or mother or grownup the primary duty for a kid particularly after separation or divorce| To annul a wedding/settlement/legislation| To declare that it now not exist and by no means existed| Discrimination| Unfair remedy on floor of intercourse, race or nationality| Embezzlement| Stealing cash that's in your care or belongs to an organisation that you just work for| Harassment| Making an individual really feel anxious and sad | Insider buying and selling/dealing| Unlawful shopping for and promoting of shared by somebody who has specialist data of an organization| Joyriding| Driving round for enjoyment in a automotive you've gotten stolen| Cash laundering| Shifting cash obtained illegally in order that its origin can't be traced| Perjury| Mendacity when underneath oath| Trespass| Go onto another person’s land with out permission| Civil(court docket)| Issues referring to, say, divorce| Indictable| i. e. hey are tried by indictment in the next stage of court docket| Abstract (offences)| Are much less severe and could be tried in lover stage court docket| Binding | They must abide by his or her choice| Chapter 48| | Patriotism| Loyalty to your individual nation| Deterrents| Methods of discouraging individuals from doing one thing due to the detrimental outcomes| Outlaw| Make struggle unlawful or unimaginable| 1918| Finish of WO I| Aerial warfare| Combating a struggle utilizing aeroplanes| 1945| Finish of WO II| Annihilation| Complete destruction by nuclear weapons| Nice powers| Most necessary political powers (used concerning the USA and the Soviet Union from the 1940s to 1990s)| Revulsion towards| Feeling of complete disgust in the direction of| Causes| Actions, organisations| Gaining their ends| Attaining their goals| To wage struggle| To combat a struggle| Hostilities| Acts of struggle| To besiege| To assault a spot by surrounding it| To ambush| To assault unexpectedly from secret positions| A truce| An settlement throughout a struggle to cease combating for a time| A ceasefire| Settlement between two armies or teams to cease combating| To rout| To defeat completely| Peacekeeping troops| Impartial troopers engaged in retaining the peace in divided society| A global observer| Exterior, impartial individual or physique| A marketing campaign| Deliberate group of navy actions| An incendiary system| Bomb| Germ/organic warfare| Utilizing germs to trigger illness amongst enemy troopers or crops| Chapter 49| | Improvement grants| Are sometimes given to poor areas (cash to assist financial improvement)| Sustainable improvement| Is crucial purpose for many international locations (improvement that doesn't destroy the financial system/the atmosphere, and so on. )| Restrictive practices| The putting of unfair restrictions, e. g. limiting imports| Sanctions| Restrictions on what a rustic might import/export| Embargoes| Complete prohibitions on importing/exporting sure items| Devaluation/revaluation| Discount/improve in worth towards different currencies| Hunch in costs| Severe fall/collapse in costs| Fiscal measures| Measures regarding taxes, and so on. | Increase the financial system| Give the financial system a elevate| Chapter 50| | Was broke/skint| Had no cash left: broke = casual, skint = very casual| I’m rolling in it| Casual: have some huge cash| To make ends meet| To outlive financially| Issues are a bit tight | Casual: my funds aren't good| Strapped for money| Casual: wanted money and had little or no| Bounced| The financial institution refused to pay it| Make… out to| What identify shall I placed on it| APR| Annual proportion charge of curiosity| Expires| Shouldn't be legitimate after| Bank card fraud| Unlawful use of somebody’s card or account| Cost card| Card the place you will need to pay again the entire debt every month| Retailer card| Bank card issued by a retailer/store for that retailer| Lump sum| Single, massive cost| Golden handshake| Giant cost to somebody on leaving a job| Endowment| Mixed insurance coverage and financial savings plan that pays out after a set interval| Life-savings| Cash saved over a few years| Share portfolios| Mixture of shares and shares of various varieties| Chapter 51| | Obituaries| Descriptions of the lives of well-known individuals who have simply died| Chief/editorial| An article giving the newspaper editor’s opinion| Categorized advertisements| Pages of ads in numerous classes| Dietary supplements| Separate magazines included with the newspaper| Function| An article or set of articles dedicated to a specific subject| Agony columns| Sections in a paper or journal that take care of readers’ non-public emotional roblems| Agony aunt| Individual, usually a lady, who solutions letters within the agony column| Pamphlet| Small e book with a gentle cowl, coping with a selected subject, usually political| Leaflet| Single sheet or folded sheets of paper giving details about one thing| Brochure| Small, skinny e book like a magazine, which supplies info, usually about journey or an organization, and so on. | Prospectus| Small, factor e book like a magazine, which supplies details about a college, faculty or college, or an organization| Flyer| Single sheet giving details about some occasion, particular provide, and so on. , usually given out on the street| Booklet| Small skinny e book with a gentle cowl, usually giving details about one thing| Guide| Ebook of detailed instruction easy methods to use one thing| Chapter 52| | Instantaneous messaging| A sort of e-mail the place each persons are on-line on the similar time| Chat rooms| A web-based dialog between a gaggle of individuals on subjects chosen by them, the place you possibly can enter or depart the ‘room’ at any time| Newsgroups| An internet site the place individuals with shared pursuits can get information and data| e-commerce| All types of enterprise accomplished on the web| Attachments| Information you ship similtaneously e-mail messages| Shopping| Taking a look at totally different web sites, with no explicit purpose| Browsing the net| Shifting from one web site or on internet web page to a different, often in search of one thing| Graphic photographs| Technical time period for photos, icons, diagrams, and so on. | ISP| Web Service Supplier: an organization that provides customers entry to the Web and providers corresponding to information, e-mail, purchasing websites, and so on. often for a month-to-month charge| Downloading| Bringing recordsdata to your pc from the web| Importing| Sending recordsdata out of your pc to the web or to a different web consumer| Spam| Undesirable ads and different materials despatched to you by e-mail from firms| Cookies| A sort of program that's despatched from the web to your pc, usually with out your data, which may observe and file what you do, which web sites you go to, and so on. | Offensive materials| Materials corresponding to pornography, or excessive political opinions, or materials that encourages hate and violence towards individuals| Bookmarked| Put it in an inventory of internet sites I can entry instantly| Subscribe to| Change into a member of| Display out| Forestall from reaching you| Server| Central pc that distributes e-mail and different providers to a gaggle of customers| Down| Not working| Hacked into| Accessed it illegally| Anti-virus software program| Safety towards pc viruses| Bounced| Got here again to me| Garbled| Only a collection of meaningless letters and numbers| Chapter 53| | Modern| Authentic and fascinating| Unsurpassed| The most effective there may be| Go away different automobiles standing| Are significantly better than different automobiles| Put/depart different candidates within the shade| Make candidates from different programs appear insignificant| Rock-bottom| Extraordinarily low| Slashed! | Dramatically diminished| Bargains galore! | An enormous variety of merchandise on sale at ridiculously low costs| Pamper your self| Deal with your self to one thing luxurious| Indulge your self| Permit your self one thing pleasant| Luxurious/opulent| Each adjectives imply wealthy and particular: luxurious collocates most strongly with phrases referring to meals and furnishings, and opulent with phrases referring to way of life| Within the lap of luxurious| In a really luxurious means| Confirmed| Proven by analysis| State-of-the-art| Use the very newest know-how| Stand out within the crowd| Be seen| Tantalisingly| Temptingly| Fetching/alluring| Each adjectives imply enticing| Alliteration| Repetition of a sound| Billboards| Very massive boards used for promoting| Flyers| Sheets of printed info promoting one thing| Trailers| Temporary excerpts from a movie, TV or radio programme that are used to promote it| Sky-writing| Phrases written within the sky utilizing smoke from a airplane| Sandwich boards| Promoting posters hung at the front and back of an individual who then walks round a busy space| Plug| Promote| Chapter 54| | Stress teams| Individuals attempting to affect what different individuals take into consideration a specific concern| Air their views| Specific their opinions| Search publicity| Wish to attain a wider viewers| Press conferences| Conferences to offer info to and reply questions from the press| Press launch| Give a proper announcement to the press| Sound chunk| Quick memorable sentence or phrase that might be repeated in information bulletins and articles| Foolish season| Time of 12 months, summer time within the UK, when there may be not a lot occurring and trivial tales find yourself on the entrance web page| Helpful sources| Making use of individuals or organisations which repeatedly present information| Monitoring| Commonly checking| Column inches| House| Put their very own gloss/spin on a narrative| Current a narrative in a specific means| Muck-raking| Amassing scandal (casual and disapproving)| Arag| Casual for a newspaper and it means that it's not of very top quality| Gutter press| Disapproving time period used concerning the sort of newspapers and magazines which are extra involved in crime and intercourse than severe information| Shiny| Costly journal printed on good high quality paper| Copy| Produced by journalist, having to be prepared for a deadline| Deadline| Second that al the articles must be completed and able to go to the press| Cease press| Place for essential tales| Sizzling off the press| A really new newspaper or story| Unique| A narrative that's solely to be present in one newspaper| Scoop| Story found and revealed by one newspaper earlier than all of the others| Hit the headlines| Story breaks| Story breaks| Turns into public data| Chapter 55| | Combating off| Making an attempt to do away with| Gone down with| Has caught, often a non-serious sickness| Come down with| With I we are saying come down not go down| I bought over it| Obtained higher/recovered| Recovering from| Getting higher: makes use of for extra severe sicknesses| Suffers from| Used for extra long-term issues| Died of/from| Not: he died with lung most cancers| Healthcare| Common expression for all the providers provided by hospitals, clinics, dentists, opticians, and so on. | Nationwide insurance coverage| Tax paid by most adults which covers the prices of healthcare for everybody| Nationwide Well being Service| British identify for the service that covers hostpitals, clinics, dentists, and so on. household physician/GP| physician who takes care of individuals’s well being: GP means normal practitioner| Surgical procedure| Small centre with simply two or three docs| clinic| Giant centre with a number of docs and sorts of providers| Prescription cost| Cost for the treatment the physician prescribes, which you pay at a pharmacy| Go non-public| Select non-public healthcare| Diabetes| Illness the place the physique doesn't correctly take up sugar starch| Bronchitis| Irritation within the breathin system, inflicting you to cough| Coronary heart illness| Severe sickness linked with the center which may result in a coronary heart assault| Pores and skin most cancers/lung most cancers/breast most cancers| Dangerous tumours in these areas| TB (tuberculosis)| Infectious illness within the lungs| Cholera| An intestinal illness that may be brought on by unhealthy ingesting water| Hepatitis| Irritation of the liver| Typhoid| Fever, with pink spots on the chast and stomach| Coronary heart assault/failure| When the center fails| Chapter 56| | Damage| Provides ache brought on by an harm| Ache| To undergo a often boring persistant ache| (the same old) aches and pains| Typically used to refer in a non-serious strategy to minor issues| Cuts and bruises| Can seek advice from minor accidents| Stinging| Sudden, burning ache| Throbbing| Beating with ache| Stiff neck| Ache and issue in shifting your neck spherical| Dizzy| A sense that you're spinning spherical and might’t steadiness| Feverish| With a excessive temperature| Nauseous| Feeling that you just need to vomit| Trembling| Shaking| Bunged up| Blocked| Off-colour/underneath the climate/ out of kinds| Casual expressions that imply ‘not nicely, however not significantly in poor health’| Various medication| Totally different from typical western programs: * acupuncture * chripractic * natural medication| Homeopathy| Taking tiny quantities of pure substances to deal with an sickness| Aromatherapy| Utilizing fragrant oils and therapeutic massage| Chapter 57| | Clotting| Forming a partly strong lump| Dehydration| Not having sufficient water in your physique| Ulcer| Painful contaminated space on the pores and skin or inside your physique| Negative effects| Negative effects along with the supposed one| Stools| Medical time period for (formal) excrement or (casual, infantile) pooh| Symptom| (methaphor) Typically used when speaking about issues in society| Prognosis| (methaphor) How consultants anticipate it to develop| Ailing| (methaphor) One which has loads of issues| A rash of| (methaphor) Quite a lot of comparable issues occurring on the similar time| Fever| (methaphor) Nice pleasure| Fever pitch| (methaphor) A factors of very excessive depth| jaundiced| (methaphor) Unenthusiastic or sceptical due to earlier unhealthy experiences| Carry the scars of/be scarred by | (methaphor) be completely affected by a detrimental expertise| Chapter 58| | Ldl cholesterol| Fatty substance discovered within the physique tissue and blood of all animals| Plaque| Undesirable substance that types on the floor of the arteries| Offal| Organs from inside animals that are eaten as meals (brains, coronary heart, kidneys, liver)| Excreted| Removed from the physique| Fibre| Substance in meals that travels by way of the physique as waste serving to digestion| Buffer| One thing (or somebody) that helps defend from hurt| Intestine| Tubes that carry meals from the abdomen| Cardiovascular| Affecting the center and blood circulation| Diabetics| an sickness through which the physique can't deal with glucose as a result of it doesn't produce sufficient insulin| Glucose| Sugar| Insulin| Hormone that controls the extent of sugar within the physique| Kilos| Measure of weight 1 pound (lb) = 454 grams| Temper enhancer| Hormone that makes you're feeling happier| Sports activities and health metaphors:| | Scored an personal purpose| Made issues worse moderately than higher| Shifting the goalposts| Altering the principles| Degree taking part in discipline| Honest state of affairs| Within the operating| Critically considerd| Neck and neck| Degree with one another and equally prone to win| Skate round| Don’t speak immediately about| Sailed by way of| Handed very simply| Additionally verify: Chapter: 41 A 43 A + finish B 44 A 48 C 49 A/B/C
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