Five-year-old Ben is out shopping with his caregiver. He sees a pack of bubblegum and asks if he can have it. His caregiver says “no” because Ben is not allowed to have gum. While the caregiver is not looking, Ben puts the gum in his pocket. As Ben and his caregiver leave the store, they are stopped by the owner who saw Ben put the gum in his pocket. The owner is angry and tells the caregiver that she should give Ben a spanking so he will learn that stealing is wrong. Ben’s caregiver is a psychology graduate student. She disagrees that spanking Ben will teach him that stealing is wrong. In this essay, formulate your argument to the store owner. Your essay must include the following elements: Introductory paragraph Discuss what spanking will teach the child and why this lesson is incompatible with teaching the child that stealing is wrong (1 page). Evaluate the learning models studied in this unit and apply the appropriate model as evidence for your position. Be sure to include a discussion of the theory as well as specific research evidence. Develop a modification program to teach Ben not to steal (3–5 pages). Conclusion Reference page in APA format The Assignment should:

The store owner’s suggestion that Ben’s caregiver should spank him for stealing the pack of gum is not only ethically and morally wrong but also ineffective in teaching the child that stealing is wrong. In fact, spanking has been proven to have negative effects on children’s behavior and cognitive development. Instead, a modification program that incorporates positive reinforcement and appropriate consequences should be used to teach Ben not to steal.

Spanking and Its Incompatibility with Teaching the Child that Stealing is Wrong:
Spanking is a form of corporal punishment that involves physical force to cause pain for the purpose of correction. Although some argue that spanking can be effective in stopping undesirable behavior, research has consistently shown that it has negative long-term effects on children. Spanking can lead to increased aggression, anxiety, depression, and impaired cognitive development. Moreover, spanking does not teach children how to regulate their behavior; it only suppresses it temporarily. Spanking also models the use of physical force to solve problems, which can lead to aggressive behavior in the future.

Learning Models and Evidence:
One of the most widely accepted learning models is the social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura. According to this theory, individuals learn by observing and imitating others’ behavior. The theory also emphasizes the role of reinforcement in shaping behavior. Positive reinforcement, such as praise or rewards, increases the likelihood of the behavior being repeated, while negative reinforcement, such as punishment or criticism, decreases the likelihood of the behavior being repeated.

Numerous studies have shown that positive reinforcement is a more effective method of teaching children to behave appropriately. For example, a study by Kazdin et al. (2003) found that positive reinforcement was more effective than punishment in reducing problem behaviors in children. Additionally, a meta-analysis by Gershoff and Grogan-Kaylor (2016) found that spanking was associated with negative outcomes, including increased aggression and decreased cognitive ability.

Modification Program to Teach Ben Not to Steal:
A more effective method of teaching Ben not to steal is to use a modification program that incorporates positive reinforcement and appropriate consequences. The following steps can be taken:

Explain to Ben that stealing is wrong and why it is wrong.
Praise Ben when he makes good choices and follows rules.
Give Ben appropriate consequences when he misbehaves, such as losing privileges or having to do extra chores.
Provide opportunities for Ben to make amends when he does misbehave, such as apologizing or returning what he stole.
In conclusion, spanking is an ineffective and harmful method of teaching children not to steal or behave appropriately. Positive reinforcement and appropriate consequences, on the other hand, have been proven to be more effective in shaping behavior. By implementing a modification program that incorporates these methods, Ben can learn not to steal and make better choices in the future.

Gershoff, E. T., & Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2016). Spanking and child outcomes: Old controversies and new meta-analyses. Journal of Family Psychology, 30(4), 453–469.

Kazdin, A. E., Siegel, T. C., & Bass, D. (1992). Cognitive problem-solving skills training and parent management training in the treatment of antisocial behavior in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(5), 733–747.