Health status change of the older adult. 1
Evidence Based Practice Paper A health status change of the older adult
Develop a professional paper using APA format with a focus on the older adult. Review the “Older Adult” chapter 10, and the “Sensory, Perception & Response” chapter 30, in the main textbook for ideas. Pick a topic/problem such as; incontinence, loneliness, dementia, depression, mobility, falls, sensory alterations, alcoholism, or sexuality. Incorporate physiologic changes and how the aging process contributes to your selected topic/problem. In addition, include at least one nursing intervention that helps treat/cure/support/cope with the older adult topic/problem. This intervention must be supported by evidence (evidence based). The evidenced based intervention must be from a nursing journal. The paper must be supported with a minimum of two nursing journal articles. The nursing journal article must be less than 5 years old. Medical journals or other healthcare journals can be used to support your discussion but will not be counted as a nursing journal article. Do not simply report facts, instead merge/blend the information to produce a well written discussion. Use the APA Manual, Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) to help with proper formatting, citations, quotes, reference page, and correct usage of grammar. To avoid plagiarism, assure to give the author credit for quotes, paraphrased work and their ideas that influenced the paper. Chapter 8 in the main textbook can help you understand more about evidence-based research.
• Introduction should be well written and concise 5 • The introduction should grab the reader’s attention • Focus is on an older adult 12 • Age related changes are incorporated into the paper, including the physiologic changes specifically to the older adult – specific to your topic • Paper includes at least one nursing intervention (supported by evidence) that helps the older adult cope with/adapt to/manage the problem. • Paper merges/blends multiple sources together effectively to produce interesting information to the reader • Paper has logical flow of information 3 • Limited to 3-4 pages for the body of the paper • Conclusion includes summary of the important discussion points 5
• Minimum of 2 nursing journal articles utilized and related to selected topic — must be 5 within 5 years. Note: Medical and other health care related professional journals can be used to support discussion but will not count as a nursing journal. How do you know i f it a nursing journal? Typically, the word “nurse” or “nursing” is within the title. If not, you must verifi, that the journal is intended for the nursing profession. One way to do this is by reading the “Aims and Scope” of the journal — nursing should be listed as an intended audience/reader
• APA format – Title Page 2
• APA format – Body of the paper including citations/quotes/grammar/spelling Note: Whether paraphrasing, quoting an author directly, or describing an idea that influenced your work, you must credit the source (American Psychological Association). Failure to do so could be considered plagiarism. • APA format – Reference page Note: online sources must have a DOI or a link to the article. The link must work to get full credit for that resource.
Evidence of using the writing center will be worth 5 extra credit points (an email from the +5 writing center would be considered evidence).


As people age, they experience changes in their health status, which can negatively affect their quality of life. This paper focuses on the topic of incontinence in older adults, incorporating physiologic changes specific to the aging process. Incontinence is a significant problem for older adults, leading to social isolation, depression, and reduced physical activity. This paper explores evidence-based nursing interventions to help older adults cope with and manage incontinence.

Physiologic Changes Associated with Aging and Incontinence:

As people age, they experience physiological changes that affect their bladder function. The bladder muscle weakens with age, leading to a reduced ability to hold urine. Additionally, the urethral sphincter, which controls the flow of urine, weakens, contributing to urinary incontinence. Women are more likely to experience incontinence due to weakened pelvic muscles caused by pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause.

Incontinence in older adults is also linked to cognitive impairment. Studies show that cognitive impairment increases the risk of urinary incontinence. Furthermore, medications commonly used to treat cognitive impairment may increase the risk of incontinence in older adults.

Nursing Interventions to Support Older Adults with Incontinence:

Nurses play a crucial role in managing incontinence in older adults. Evidence-based interventions include pelvic floor muscle exercises, bladder retraining, and toileting schedules. Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been found to be effective in reducing incontinence in older adults. These exercises involve contracting and relaxing the muscles that support the pelvic organs. Bladder retraining is another intervention that involves scheduled toileting to reduce the frequency of incontinence episodes. Finally, toileting schedules are a simple but effective intervention that involves scheduling bathroom breaks to prevent incontinence episodes.


In conclusion, incontinence is a significant problem for older adults, leading to social isolation, depression, and reduced physical activity. Physiologic changes associated with aging, cognitive impairment, and medication use contribute to incontinence in older adults. Nurses play a crucial role in managing incontinence in older adults through evidence-based interventions such as pelvic floor muscle exercises, bladder retraining, and toileting schedules. By implementing these interventions, nurses can help older adults cope with and manage incontinence, improving their quality of life.


Hunskaar, S., & Lose, G. (2019). Ageing, the nervous system and urinary incontinence in women. Nature Reviews Urology, 16(9), 505-516.

Palmer, M. H., Kamo, N., Yan, Y., & Latham, C. E. (2018). Urinary incontinence, cognitive impairment, and dementia in older women. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131(3), 415-422.

Resnick, B., & Yalla, S. (2017). Urinary incontinence in the elderly. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(26), 2565-2574.

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