Task Description
Write a written response that discusses how trauma might influence two of the factors of the holistic model which contribute to an individual of well-being. These factors are: biological, social, psychological and spiritual.
Assessment Brief Rationale
This assessment will ensure that students can collaboratively identify and discuss holistic care and demonstrate an understanding of the principles and practices of trauma-informed practice.
Task Instructions Written response (750 words)
An essential aspect of trauma-informed practice recognises the prevalence and subsequent impact of traumatic life experiences on mental well-being, therefore healthcare settings need to be safe, inclusive environments that provide tolerance for diversity and compassion. Choose two of the factors from the holistic model above (biological, psychological, sociological or spiritual) and write a response on how the experience of trauma may impact these chosen factors that contribute to an individual’s well-being. Remember that ‘trauma’ can be defined under various classifications from a single instance or complex. The primary focus of this response should focus on the potential impact these adverse experiences can have on these chosen factors of the holistic model. To complete the written response, complete the below steps:
Assessment Brief
1. Choose two of the factors from the holistic model of care (biological, psychological, sociological or spiritual), and write a response on how the experience of trauma can impact these two factors of the model which contribute to an individual’s well-being.
2. Use at least 3 academic references to support your response.
3. Use APA 7 referencing style.
The following readings may be used for the completion of this assignment:
Alegría, M., NeMoyer, A., Falgàs Bagué, I., Wang, Y., & Alvarez, K. (2018). Social determinants of mental health: where we are and where we need to go. Current psychiatry reports, 20, 1-13.
Compton, M. T., & Shim, R. S. (2015). The social determinants of mental health. Focus, 13(4), 419-425.
Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences
Sweeney, A., Filson, B., Kennedy, A., Collinson, L., & Gillard, S. (2018). A paradigm shift: relationships in trauma-informed mental health services. BJPsych advances, 24(5), 319-333.
Van der Kolk, B. (2022). Posttraumatic stress disorder and the nature of trauma. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience.
Watters, E. R., & Martin, G. (2021). Health outcomes following childhood maltreatment: an examination of the biopsychosocial model. Journal of aging and health, 33(7-8), 596-606.

Referencing style
This assessment should adhere to all referencing and citation conventions stipulated in the APA referencing guide (7th ed.). Quoting is not appropriate in this assignment. Please refer to the following resources on how to apply the APA 7th referencing style.

Assessment Rubric

First, trauma often has significant biological effects. Stress caused by traumatic events triggers hormonal responses that, over time, can alter brain structure and function (Van der Kolk, 2022). The hippocampus, involved in memory and emotion regulation, commonly shows reductions in volume following trauma (Watters & Martin, 2021). This can impair one’s ability to process and integrate traumatic memories and regulate stress responses. On a physiological level, trauma has been linked to higher risks of diseases like heart disease, cancer, and autoimmune disorders (Felitti et al., 1998).
Second, trauma typically has profound psychological consequences. Post-traumatic stress disorder is one well-known outcome, characterized by re-experiencing trauma through intrusive thoughts and flashbacks, avoidance of trauma reminders, and hyperarousal (Van der Kolk, 2022). However, trauma may also disrupt one’s sense of safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy (Sweeney et al., 2018). This can contribute to difficulties with emotion regulation, interpersonal relationships, and mental well-being. Trauma survivors often struggle with depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicidal thoughts at increased rates (Compton & Shim, 2015).
In summary, trauma fundamentally impacts individuals in both embodied and psychological ways that profoundly influence well-being across one’s lifespan. Its effects are multi-faceted and long-lasting without appropriate support. I hope this discussion provides some useful insights into how trauma may influence biological and psychological factors within a holistic framework. Please let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions.

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