Mental Health
How Ethnicity and Gender Impact experiences of Mental illness
Mental illness is stigmatized globally in various ways, such as race, sexuality, socioeconomic class, geographical location, and other factors impacting an individual’s mental health outcome. The paper will look specifically at how ethnicity and Gender affect mental health.
Ethnic and Gender minorities frequently suffer from poor mental health outcome because of multiple factors such as cultural stigma that surround mental health care, lack of high-quality mental health care services, overall lack of awareness about mental health, and discrimination. Surgeon general report on a supplement to mental health indicated striking disparities for minorities in the provision of mental health services. The ethnic minorities have less access to mental health services than the whites; they have less probability of receiving care. When they do, it is likely to be poor in quality despite having similar community rates of mental disorders (1). This finding indicates that ethnic minorities bear an unmet burden of their mental health need; hence they suffer a significant loss of health and productivity.
On the other hand, mental illness can be gendered as ethnicity. Just as African Americans are viewed as the most masculine and Asian as the feminine group, mental illness is seen as feminine or masculine(1). The consequences of mental illness in ethnic minorities and men are long-lasting
The way ethnicity affects mental health problems and mental health services.
Most people think that mental health and illness are personal issues, but it is not. Mental illness and health are affected by a combination of factors such as psychological, social, biological, and genetic factors. Often, societal factors are ignored, but its diversity in ethnicity and background is an exciting aspect affecting individual mental health. Race influences the diversity of experiences in many ways.
The mental health experience of the minority is affected by ethnicity and how society views the particular ethnic group (2). For example, in the United States, ethnic minorities are less likely to seek mental health treatment than whites; they delay treatment until symptoms are severe. This is attributed to a lack of mistrust of health care facilities, history of discrimination, racism, and fear of being mistreated because of the background of their ethnic group. This aspect relates to clinical stereotyping; mental health professionals often have biases about certain ethnic groups, influencing their diagnosis. A survey conducted by the commonwealth shows that 43% of African Americans and 28% of Latinos compared to 5% of whites expressed that they were mistreated in the clinical setting because of their ethnic background.Consequently, poor physical health affects mental health. The minority ethnic group tends to have higher rates of chronic physical health which increases the risk for mental disorders such as depression and anxiety (2).
A primary component of mental health service is face-to-face communication aside from pharmacological treatment. Minority diverged ethnicity tends to experience a language barrier. This makes it difficult for the non-English speaking community to access the complete breadth of services (2).In this regard, it is also difficult for them to afford insurance coverage of mental health services.
Distribution of Mental Health Issues Among People from Black and Minority Ethnic Groups
The rates of mental health problems are higher in some Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups than whites. For instance, Black men have higher chances of experiencing psychotic disorders than whites. Blacks are four times more likely to be detained under mental health, just like David Harewood, than whites. South Asian women are at high risk of committing suicide. Further, the refugees are more likely to have mental health problems such as PTSD, anxiety, and depression compared to the general population.
Additional to the factors that affect everyone’s mental health, BAME communities are affected by mental health stigma, inequality, and racism. Further, when (BAME) they try to access mental health services, they face various barriers such as; they don’t recognize they have a mental condition become it is rarely discussed in their community, they are unaware that help is available, language barriers, financial barrier, failure of understanding from health care professionals and professionals fail to understand their conditions (3) This aspect is due to racism and discrimination.
How Gender Contributes to Mental Health problems
The feminine and masculine qualities have been assigned to mental illness and symptoms. Existing stereotypes about women and men lead to this misinformed perceptions. For instance, women have been viewed as overly emotional hence emotional illnesses like anxiety and depression are feminine. On the other hand, mental illnesses such as anger management issues and substance abuse are masculine stereotypes; they are more prevalent amongst men. As a result, mental health practitioners have been labeling individuals disturbed if their behavior does not fit the professional gender ideals (3). A study found that nurses believe that girls are more likely to have mental illness compared to boys and that it is difficult for men to open up about their mental health. Although women are more likely to report mental issues, men and women are equally affected.
Gender affects mental illness not only in terms of symptoms but also in terms of recovery. Men across all age brackets are less likely to seek mental health issues. Men tend to seek medical attention regarding physical pains or height despite experiencing potential mental health concerns. Untreated stress causes the decline of mental health; consequently, the stigma around men expressing their emotions is why men tend to exhibit externalizing disorders (3).
Overall, women are likely to face more mental health problems and be more likely to recover. On the other hand, men have less risk of poor mental health; however, the ace externalizing disorders and are less likely to retrieve when they are mentally ill. These results are linked to hegemonic masculinity, stigma, stereotypes, and socialization.

What are the six typical features of a black person’s experience of mental health intervention identified by Fernando in 1995
The historical oppression, dehumanization, and violence against the black have evolved to the present day structural, institutional, and individual racism, which have cultivated mistrust and less rich community experience characterized by myriad disparities. There are six features that black people experience in mental health intervention. Stigma is one feature; there are strong negative attitudes and beliefs towards the people that live with mental health conditions. Studies show that 63% of black people believe that mental health is a weakness; therefore, people may experience shame and worry of being discriminated against because of their condition(4). Treatment issue is another feature. Black people experience inequality due to discrimination and prejudice in the health care system; this has caused mistrust of health care professionals and created a barrier for blacks to engage in treatment. Another feature is societal issues that entail historical adversity such as race-based exclusion from economic resources, health, education, and social resources lead to socioeconomic disparities that black people experience. These disparities are linked to mental health as homeless, incarcerated, and impoverished are at risk of having a poor mental illness. Another feature is disparities in access to mental health services. Black people have few mental health specialists, for those who prefer black specialists (4). Therefore, black people may feel unwelcome by providers available due to discrimination and racism. Incorrect diagnosis is another black mental health experience (4). Blacks are likely to be incorrectly diagnosed compared to whites. Blacks are likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia and are less likely to

Be diagnosed with an affective disorder. Adaptive traditions have sustained hardships for an extended period among the black people imposed by the larger community.
Action goals established by the department of health- using the SEEP model
Good mental health is integral to human well-being. The critical social actions and principle established by the health department is proportionate universalism (4). Focusing only on the minority group will fail to reduce the health inequalities. Efforts must be universal. Taking life courses through social arrangements and institutions such as education and social care has enormous impacts on opportunities to empower people, influencing mental health.
The health department has taken an ethical action of providing integrated and responsive mental health in community-based settings (4). This involves providing quality mental health services that require respect of individual autonomy, incorporation of human rights, and protection of human rights.
The economic action goal undertaken by the department of health is to strengthen the information system and mental health research. The availability of timely and relevant information systems allows improvement in service provision. Currently, there is an imbalance of providing services in low-income and middle-income countries, making it hard to understand the mental issues of the local population.
The political action of the department of health is to strengthen effective governance and leadership for mental health. The government is responsible for appropriate legal, service, and financial arrangements to facilitate the needs and promote mental health in the whole population(4). The government has taken vital action in developing policies and plans that address mental health.
David’s ethnicity and Gender may have him suffer from poor mental health outcomes due to various factors such as cultural stigma that surrounds mental health, discrimination, inaccessibility of high-quality mental health and lack of awareness about mental health, language barriers, financial barrier, and wrong perception about specific gender or ethnic group that causes the wrong diagnosis. Gender has an undeniable correlation with mental health; Phenomena perceptions of this two are linked to hegemonic masculinity, stigma, socialization, and stereotypes. Overall, Ethnicity and Gender create differences in mental health services, affecting mental health outcomes.

Fernando, S. Cultural diversity, mental health, and psychiatry: The struggle against racism. Routledge.,2004