QUESTION: How is GBV a part of the continuum of violence from pre-conflict to conflict to post-conflict? (The same question could be applied to pre-disaster, disaster and post-disaster). In answering this question, you should address the following: what we mean by a continuum of violence; the relationship between gender inequality and GBV; unique and common features of each phase whether-pre-conflict, conflict or post-conflict?
Use ALL of the required materials-reading, slides and videos provided. When citing the readings, use APA Paper Writing Service by Expert Writers Pro Paper Help: Essay Writing Service Paper Writing Service by Essay Pro Paper Help: Essay Writing Service style. Your response should be at least 250 words.


GBV can be understood as a continuum of violence with unique and common features in pre-conflict/disaster, conflict/disaster, and post-conflict/disaster situations (United Nations Population Fund, 2016). Inequality between women and men often increases vulnerability to GBV during these phases.
Pre-conflict or pre-disaster periods may see higher levels of intimate partner violence and domestic abuse due to existing gender inequalities and lack of support systems (World Health Organization, 2017). Conflict or disaster then exacerbates violence through weaponization of gender, increased militarization of masculinity, and breakdown of rule of law (Carpenter, 2006). Post-conflict or post-disaster rebuilding can normalize past violence and weaken women’s roles if patriarchal power structures are not addressed (O’Rourke, 2013).
Common across phases is how gender inequality disempowers women and minorities, limiting their agency and increasing risk of GBV (United Nations Population Fund, 2016). Unique to conflict/disaster is direct targeting of women and use of sexual violence as a weapon of war (Carpenter, 2006). Post-conflict rebuilding presents opportunities to transform social norms but risks if responses do not involve women (O’Rourke, 2013).
To summarize, a continuum of violence exists from pre-conflict to post-conflict regarding GBV due to increasing vulnerability from gender inequality across these phases (United Nations Population Fund, 2016). Understanding this continuum can help shape more inclusive and effective policies to prevent and respond to GBV.
Carpenter, R. C. (2006). Recognizing gender-based violence against civilian men and boys in conflict situations. Security Dialogue, 37(1), 83–103.
O’Rourke, C. (2013). Walking a fine line: Humanitarianism and security in post-conflict peacebuilding in Northern Uganda. Security Dialogue, 44(6), 487–504.
United Nations Population Fund. (2016). Gender equality and human rights.
World Health Organization. (2017). Violence against women.

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