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1. From where do hurricanes derive their energy? What are two factors that can weaken hurricanes?

2. How might the path of a hurricane moving westward from Africa be affected by the Bermuda High (if need be reference pg. 205 & 206) as it approaches the United States?

3. What are three differences between a hurricane watch and a hurricane warning?

4. How can topography contribute to pollution in a city or region?

5. What are three types of smokestack plumes and which do you think is the least hazardous?

Meteorology Worksheet
Hurricanes get their energy from warm evaporating water from the surface of the ocean. Accordingly, they commonly form over the warm tropical ocean surfaces. The heat energy of evaporates in converted to wind energy as water condenses. This leads to the release of latent heat into the convective clouds. Hurricanes lose their energy by moving over large landmasses or over colder water surfaces. The wind shear over the cooler water surfaces causes the hurricane to dissipate rapidly (Ahrens, 2011).
Once the hurricanes form, they normally turn to the northern and the southern hemisphere in the process called the north Atlantic, the storms move under the influence of the large scale flow of the Bermuda High in the lower atmosphere (Ahrens, 2011). Hurricanes would initially move westwards on the southern side of the high away from the equator and them starts following the northwesterly, then northerly and eventually northeast.
Hurricane watch describes the knowledge that a hurricane pose an appreciable threat to a specified area or locality although it look like there is no immediate danger as yet. People ought not to panic but should be kept upraised. Hurricane warning implies that the storm, at about 74 miles per hour, rough seas and heavy rain is headed for destruction (Smith, 2006).
Topology of a region can significantly affect its air quality. As a consequence, a city located in a valley definitely collects more pollutants than that located in a flat plain. According to Desonie (2007), topology aid in changing pollution conditions over certain seasons of time. In cold winters, more pollutants are collected in the valleys air ink into the valleys. In summer, the air rise and the pollutants cannot collect.
The three types of smokestack plumes are tall stack no wind, tall stack light-wind and short stack light-wind. Short stack light wind I the most dangerous.

Ahrens, C. D. (2011). Essentials of meteorology: an invitation to the atmosphere. Cengage Learning.
Desonie, D. (2007). Atmosphere: Air pollution and its effects. New York: Chelsea House Publishers.
Smith, C. B. (2006). Extreme waves. National Academies Press.
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The Energy Sources of Hurricanes and Their Weakening Factors
Hurricanes are massive rotating storms that form over tropical oceans, fueled by heat energy from warm sea surface temperatures and latent heat from condensation of water vapor in the clouds. They release this energy in the form of strong winds, heavy rains, and storm surges, causing widespread damage and loss of life. To better understand and predict the behavior of hurricanes, it is important to examine the sources of their energy and the factors that can weaken them.
The main source of energy for hurricanes is the heat released from the warm ocean water when it evaporates and rises into the atmosphere, providing the fuel for the cyclonic circulation of air around the center of the storm. This circulation, along with the release of latent heat from the condensation of water vapor in the clouds, drives the intense winds and heavy rains that are the hallmark of a hurricane.
Two factors that can weaken hurricanes are dry air and wind shear. Dry air is air that is relatively low in moisture, and it can disrupt the formation and maintenance of clouds and the cyclonic circulation in a hurricane. When dry air enters a hurricane, it can weaken the storm by inhibiting the release of latent heat and reducing the supply of moisture to the storm. Wind shear is a change in wind direction and speed with height in the atmosphere, and it can disrupt the formation and maintenance of a hurricane by tearing apart the clouds and breaking the cyclonic circulation. Strong wind shear can weaken a hurricane by preventing it from strengthening or by breaking it apart entirely.
The Path of Hurricanes and the Bermuda High
Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean usually runs from June to November, when warm sea surface temperatures in the tropical and subtropical regions provide the energy for storms to form and develop. Some of these storms originate from tropical waves over Africa, and move westward across the Atlantic, potentially reaching the United States. The path of these storms is affected by several factors, including the strength and position of the Bermuda High, a large area of high pressure in the Atlantic Ocean that influences the movement of storms.
As a hurricane approaches the United States from the west, it may encounter the Bermuda High, which can either steer it away from the coast or direct it towards the coast, depending on the strength and position of the high. If the Bermuda High is strong and located to the north of the storm, it can steer the storm away from the coast, limiting its potential impact. If the Bermuda High is weak or located to the south of the storm, it can allow the storm to move towards the coast, increasing the potential impact.
The Bermuda High can also influence the speed and direction of a hurricane, as it can either slow down the storm or speed it up, depending on its location and strength. For example, if the Bermuda High is strong and located to the north of the storm, it can slow down the storm, increasing the potential for a prolonged impact on the coast. If the Bermuda High is weak or located to the south of the storm, it can speed up the storm, reducing the potential for a prolonged impact but increasing the potential for a more intense impact.

The Differences between a Hurricane Watch and a Hurricane Warning
A hurricane watch and a hurricane warning are two types of alerts issued by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) to inform the public about the potential threat of a hurricane. They differ in terms of the timing and the expected impact of the storm.
A hurricane watch is issued when a storm has the potential to reach hurricane conditions within the next 48 hours. During a hurricane watch, residents should prepare for the possibility of a hurricane and be ready to take action if a warning is issued.

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