This ruling was necessitated by the Texas Legislature’s revision of its education laws to deny public schools enrolling undocumented immigrant students and withholding any funds for their education. In addition, a class action was filed for permanent injunctive relief on behalf of some Mexican immigrant school-age children residing in Texas. The class motion requested the district court to injunct the defendant into allowing free public education to those children.
The rule that was used in this case was the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Accordingly, denying illegal immigrants’ undocumented children the right to enrolment in public school constituted discrimination based on alienage and violated the Equal Protection Clause as constituted in the Fourteenth Amendment.
The court ruled in favor of the plaintiff by concluding that Texas’s legislation violated the Equal Protection Clause. In delivering the ruling, the court expounded that education had an essential role in keeping and maintaining the fabric of society and offers the essential tools that people may use towards an economically productive life that benefits other people. The juror also explained that, although persuasive argument perception is that the state may withhold benefits from people whose presence in the state is as a result of unlawful misconduct, the children of illegal migrants have no bearing on the actions of their parents and cannot affect their parent’s conduct or their status. As such, “legislation directing the onus of misconducts by the parents against children violates the basic conceptions of justice” (Yates, 2004).
2. United Kingdom voting for Brexit
According to Clarke, Goodwin, & Whiteley (2017), the primary reason for the Brexit vote by the Brits was necessitated by the majority view that decisions about their country should be taken in their country and leaving provided the best opportunity for the country to regain control over their sovereign matters such as trade, immigration, and their borders. Secondly, proposers of Brexit argued that the European Union was a dysfunctional economic entity because it failed to tackle the economic issues that had been developing since 2008, such as the 20%% unemployment in southern Europe, while as a country like German enjoy a low unemployment rate of 4.2%. The general stagnation of the European Union, the Brits argued, was the reason for Brexit. The third reason was a need for sovereignty. Across the world, there is a rise in nationalism and an increasing distrust of multinational trade and finance, as well as defense organizations like IMF, NATO, and EU, all of which were created after the Second World War. Brits who opposed the EU argued that these organizations no longer serve the purpose they created.
Lastly, the Brits voted for Brexit was political elitism. The political leadership and class experienced a profound loss whereby the exit voters rejected both the labor and conservative parties, which had endorsed the UK to remain under European Union. Brits who wanted to leave the EU took these parties as hostile to them and their interests. It is also important to note that the initial plan for Brexit was a fight by the British commons against the British elites. The latter believed that the former was for the EU because of their selfish interest as opposed to the interests of all Britons. The voters also believed that the elite had contempt for their values, interests, and nationalism.
Populist nationalism ideology not strong in Canada
Canada has always resisted the populist wave because of strategic decisions, strong minority coalitions, powerful institutional incentives, and idiosyncratic circumstances (Taub, 2017). Most populist ideologies are driven by far-right politicians when there are changes in demographics due to immigration leading to threats on existing economic opportunities to the locals. However, in Canada, hg immigration rates have changed the nation in few decades, and the public has not discorded it. Still, it has instead been accepting and calm about immigration policies. Between assimilation (the melting pot) and acculturation (salad bowl), I prefer assimilation. Assimilation results in a homogeneous society void of prejudice and discrimination irrespective of race, religion, or culture. On the other hand, a salad bowl society that allows different communities to retain their native cultures in a salad bowl society may result in discrimination and prejudice.
The world is more globalized today than ever. International trade has been necessitated by globalization’s push to develop better and efficient systems to support it. Efficiency through technology is the key driver of international trade, which has led to a reduction in time and cost of making global trade. In addition, as organizations fight to maintain their competitive advantage, production processes have become more efficient due to globalization.
Globalization has also facilitated international migration through better communications, improved transport, and disseminating of information via mass media. At the same time, globalization is minimization immigration through technologies such as the internet, which have enabled remote working and communication. As a result, people can stay in countries with fewer opportunities while working for countries abroad with economic opportunities.
Speculative capital or hot money is another driver of globalization in recent times. Investors targeting short-term returns speculate in the market for high interest, short-term investments in global markets, thus fueling globalization.
Out of the four countries, I would choose to move to Cuba. Apart from its doctoral political system and low per capita income, the country seems to be the most favorable in other factors. For example, it has a universal health care system just like the rest economic giants and better off because the physician density is the highest at 8.2 physicians per 100 people compared to US’s at 2.6 physicians per 1000 people, free college education while the same is not accessible in the rest of the countries, and the lowest unemployment rate among the four countries.
Global terrorism is terrorism that surpasses national borders in terms of methods used, and people targeted, and location of terrorism operators. The emergence of global terrorism is caused by;
a) The economic factor-The leading cause has been explained(Newman, 2006) as poverty. People feel deprived of their resources, and opportunities are driven by foreign interference. The state of poverty then causes resentments making some people resolve to terrorism to express their outrage.
b) According to Berrebi and Ostwald (2011), political factors such as repression, oppression, and no compliance constitution by the leadership class may evoke opposition which is sometimes expressed through terrorism; when terrorists feel that foreign interference results in their repression, they end up engaging in international terrorism.
c) Social factors- these may vary from populist ideology to adoption of a specific ideology of philosophy by an extremist group resulting in left-wing terrorism such as anarchism, fascism. Others like religion-based extremist terrorism assume that the global population should ascribe to a specific religion and ideologies same as those extremist terrorist groups.
Feminism is the belief in social, economic, and political equality of sexes. The main objectives of feminism are;
a) Challenge systematic inequalities that women face in society
b) Promotion of women interests and rights
c) Institutional reforms such as eradication of gender discrimination and offering women opportunities in gender-dominated spaces.
The First Law of Petro politics states that the prices of i-oil and pace of freedom or democracy are inversely correlated. This theory is critical because it enables the oil-producing nations to have checks and balances on their democratic institutions, thus controlling dictatorship in democratic oil-producing nations.
Realism is a theory in international relations that advocates for accepting situations as they are and calls to prepare and tackle them accordingly. Realism is a significant theory that rejects the idealization of imaginative phenomena in favor of realistic close observation of outward appearance.
Classical liberals are ideological lenience committed to equal rights, liberty, and individualism. Classic liberals believe that to attain their goals, and they should operate in a free economy with minimal government interference.
Yates, L. S. (2004). Plyler v. Doe and the rights of undocumented immigrants to higher education: Should undocumented students be eligible for in-state college tuition rates. Wash. ULQ, 82, 585.
Clarke, H. D., Goodwin, M., & Whiteley, P. (2017). Why Britain Voted for Brexit: An individual-level analysis of the 2016 referendum vote. Parliamentary Affairs, 70(3), 439-464.
Taub, A. (2017). Canada’s Secret to Resisting the West’s Populist Wave. New York Times, 27.
Artificial Intelligence Ethics
Artificial intelligence ethics refer to the moral principles that guide the development and use of AI technology. As AI technology becomes more advanced and integrated into our daily lives, there is a need to ensure that its development and use align with ethical principles. One of the main concerns with AI is its potential to perpetuate and amplify existing biases and discrimination, leading to unfair outcomes for certain groups. Therefore, AI ethics must include guidelines for fair and unbiased decision-making, transparency in data collection and usage, and accountability for any negative consequences resulting from AI use.
Climate Change Mitigation
Climate change mitigation refers to efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prevent the harmful effects of global warming. It is becoming increasingly urgent to take action to mitigate climate change, as the planet is experiencing more extreme weather events and rising sea levels. Mitigation efforts can include transitioning to renewable energy sources, implementing energy-efficient practices, and developing low-carbon transportation systems. Additionally, there is a need for international cooperation to tackle climate change, as it is a global issue that requires a collective response.
Universal Basic Income
Universal basic income (UBI) is a policy proposal in which all citizens are provided with a regular, unconditional payment to cover their basic needs, regardless of their employment status. The idea behind UBI is to provide a safety net for individuals who may be struggling to make ends meet, while also reducing poverty and inequality. Proponents of UBI argue that it could also promote entrepreneurship and creativity, as individuals would have more freedom to pursue their passions without worrying about financial stability. However, opponents argue that UBI could be expensive to implement and may discourage individuals from working, leading to economic inefficiencies.