Productivity in Chinese Construction Industry essay

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Affect of Migrant Staff on Complete Issue
Productiveness in Chinese language Building Trade
Gui Ye 1,2,*, Yuhe Wang 1,2, Yuxin Zhang Three,*, Liming Wang four, Houli Xie 5, Yuan Fu 1 and Jian Zuo 6
1 College of Building Administration and Actual Property, Chongqing College, Chongqing 400045, China;
[email protected] (Y.W.); [email protected] (Y.F.)
2 The Worldwide Analysis Middle for Sustainable Constructed Surroundings, Chongqing College,
Chongqing 400045, China
Three Faculty of Supplies Science and Engineering, Chongqing College, Chongqing 400044, China
four College of Civil Engineering, Internal Mongolia College of Science & Expertise, Baotou 014010, China;
[email protected]
5 Chongqing Building Expertise Growth Middle, Chongqing 400015, China; [email protected]
6 College of Structure and Constructed Surroundings, College of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005,
Australia; jian.[email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected] (G.Y.); [email protected] (Y.Z.);
Tel.: +86-139-831-75180 (G.Y.)
Acquired: 30 November 2018; Accepted: 9 February 2019; Revealed: 12 February 2019

Summary: Complete issue productiveness (TFP) is of vital significance to the sustainable improvement of
building . This paper presents an evaluation on the influence of migrant staff on TFP
in Chinese language building sector. Apparently, Solow Residual Method is utilized to conduct the
evaluation by means of evaluating two situations, particularly the state of affairs with out contemplating migrant staff
(State of affairs A) and the state of affairs with together with migrant staff (State of affairs B). The info are collected
from the China Statistical Yearbook on Building and Chinese language Annual Report on Migrant Staff
for the interval of 2008–2015. The outcomes point out that migrant staff have a major influence on
TFP, throughout the surveyed interval they improved TFP by 10.42% in complete and promoted the annual
common TFP progress by Zero.96%. Therefore, it may be seen that the influence of migrant staff on TFP is
very important, while the primary purpose for such influence is believed to be the development of migrant
staff’ high quality obtained primarily all through studying by doing.
Key phrases: building ; migrant staff; complete issue productiveness (TFP); Solow Residual
Method; studying by doing
1. Introduction
Complete issue productiveness (TFP) performs an important position in selling the sustainable improvement of
the development . From the angle of financial progress, financial theories, sometimes
the classical progress concept [1], the neoclassical progress concept [2,3] and new progress concept [4,5] all
counsel that the drivers of building progress are labor, capital and TFP. Because the earlier researchers
famous, the expansion introduced by the rise of labor and capital is exogenous and has a diminishing
marginal utility, and a gradual state of zero progress will strategy finally [6,7]. Thus, labor and
capital-driven improvement is unsustainable. Quite the opposite, TFP-driven improvement is endogenous
and sustainable. As a result of this improvement primarily depends on innovation, reminiscent of technological progress,
enchancment of laborer’s high quality and administration innovation [8,9], which doesn't diminish slightly
even will increase the marginal utility. To attain sustainable improvement, consequently, it's a widespread
technique for any nation to pursue larger TFP in building.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926; doi:10.3390/su11030926 www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 2 of 18
To enhance TFP, it's basic and important to measure it correctly, nonetheless, the absence of
migrant staff knowledge could impact the measurement results of TFP. Usually, the measurement
of TFP is a posh input-output course of, involving various enter sources [9]. In these sources,
labor is an important one for labor-intensive building . Thus, accuracy of labor enter
knowledge has a major impact on the rationality and validity of TFP measurement. Though quite a few
measurement practices have given labor enter appreciable consideration [8–13], it's famous that the official
statistic knowledge which don't often embrace the knowledge of migrant staff have been utilized to
measure TFP. This phenomenon happens largely as a result of the group of migrant staff has had a poor
standing and been handled unfairly [14,15]. With the motivation to avoid every kind of labor rules
and unionization [16,17], a statistical discrimination towards migrant staff arises in building of
most nations, which is achieved primarily by means of the manners of unregister and non-contract [18,19].
Naturally, such teams have been nearly omitted in official statistics [20,21]. The earlier associated
research haven't targeted on this issue [8–12,22–27], perhaps these researchers mistakenly consider
that the official knowledge used already comprise the information of migrant staff. Sadly, migrant
staff have gotten overrepresented in building of developed and creating nations [17,28].
Due to this fact, TFP measurement end result will clearly not be exact if the impact of migrant staff is
not included.
In step with earlier research [14,29,30], on this paper migrant staff by definition imply grownup
staff coming into into a distinct nationwide or non-local labor market. In that case, some nations reminiscent of
China the place migrant staff account for a major proportion of building staff, measuring
the influence of migrant staff on TFP must be specifically marked. Resulting from hukou (family
registration) system, China has a lot of migrant staff (generally known as Nongmingong in
China) making up the vast majority of the labor power [30,31], whereas the development , moreover
manufacturing, has lengthy been the biggest to supply employment alternatives for this
group [32,33]. The nationwide survey organized by the Chinese language Bureau of Statistics [34] reported that
greater than 80% staff (54 million) employed in building had been migrant staff in 2017. Due to this fact,
the influence of migrant staff on TFP should not be ignored in Chinese language building sector. In different
phrases, we suspect that migrant staff could have a major influence on TFP in Chinese language building
. Nonetheless, there was few measurement practices listening to this group.
In opposition to this distinctive background, the primary goal of this paper is to validate and measure
the potential influence of migrant staff on TFP in Chinese language building . To the most effective of our
data, there are not any prior research including the issue of migrant staff to measure TFP in China
and elsewhere. Due to this fact, we innovate within the discipline of TFP measurement research with consideration of
migrant staff. On this foundation, the second goal is to debate and analyze the potential causes for
such an influence, which contributes to acquiring extra info to raised perceive methods to enhance
TFP successfully by making use of the issue of migrant staff.
The contribution of this text is twofold. In concept, our work tries to make up for the present
defects and to complement the physique of information on TFP measurement in building by means of
consideration of the issue of migrant staff. In follow, our conclusions are of nice significance
for coverage makers and building agency managers, as a result of they'll purchase precious reference to
progress TFP progress. As well as, our findings can't solely be tailored to Chinese language building sector,
but additionally may be utilized to most nations, reminiscent of Malaysia and Singapore the place the proportions of
migrant staff have reached about 69% and 64%, respectively [17,35].
The remainder of this paper is structured as follows. We describe the methodology within the subsequent part.
Part Three introduces the information used on this examine. Sections four and 5 current the outcomes and dialogue.
The ultimate part attracts the conclusions.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 Three of 18
2. Methodology
2.1. Analysis Design and Scheme
As a complete indicator for evaluating effectivity in useful resource utilization [36], TFP is simply
measured not directly by means of a comparability between enter and output [11,37], particularly counting on
the index system of enter and output [38,39]. Due to this fact, this can be very tough to measure the influence
of migrant staff on TFP instantly. In that circumstance, we draw classes from the widespread paradigm
of experimental design to evaluate the influence not directly by setting State of affairs A and State of affairs B. On this
foundation, a comparative evaluation regarding two situations is carried out to acquire the influence of migrant
staff on TFP not directly. Therefore, the next three-stage analysis design and scheme is deliberate,
simply exhibited in Determine 1.
on TFP instantly. In that circumstance, we draw classes from the widespread paradigm of experimental
design to evaluate the influence not directly by setting State of affairs A and State of affairs B. On this foundation, a comparative
evaluation regarding two situations is carried out to acquire the influence of migrant staff on TFP
not directly. Therefore, the next three-stage analysis design and scheme is deliberate, simply exhibited in
Determine 1.
Migrant staff
Stage 1
Set up the index system of TFP measurement
on the degree
Output variable
choice
Literature evaluation
Sensible evaluation
Stage 2
Measure TFP in Chinese language building underneath
State of affairs A and State of affairs B
Solow Residual
Method
Stage Three
Validate & measure potential influence of migrant
staff on TFP in Chinese language building
Comparative
evaluation
Talk about & analyze the explanations of the above
influence in Chinese language building
Enter variable
choice
State of affairs A
Goal 1
Goal 2
State of affairs B
Figure1.The analysis design and scheme.
2.1.1. Establishing the Index System of TFP Measurement
As said above, to measure the influence of migrant staff on TFP, an index system of TFP
measurement have to be established firstly. Consequently, in stage 1 our fundamental process is to determine the enter
components and output components within the establishing system and choose the detailed variables and indicators for
every issue. By a scientific evaluation of literature, a abstract of those components was recorded in Desk 1. As
may very well be seen, these research principally reached consensus on the identification of enter and output components.
Determine 1. The analysis design and scheme.
2.1.1. Establishing the Index System of TFP Measurement
As said above, to measure the influence of migrant staff on TFP, an index system of TFP
measurement have to be established firstly. Consequently, in stage 1 our fundamental process is to determine the
enter components and output components within the establishing system and choose the detailed variables and
indicators for every issue. By a scientific evaluation of literature, a abstract of those components was recorded
in Desk 1. As may very well be seen, these research principally reached consensus on the identification of enter
and output components.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 four of 18
Desk 1. Evaluate of the Literature on complete issue productiveness (TFP) Measurement on the Trade Stage.
Writer(s) Technique Enter-output Issue (Indicator) System
Zhi et al. [8] Manufacturing operate Three inputs: labor (hours labored), capital (fastened belongings), intermediate (actual worth); 1 output: complete worth added
Liu et al. [9] DEA-Malmquist 2 inputs: complete belongings, operational funding; 2 outputs: complete pre-tax income, income of tasks settlement accounts
Li et al. [10] DEA-Malmquist 2 inputs: labor (variety of staff), capital (building work completed); 1 output: complete worth added
Wang et al. [11] DEA-Malmquist Three inputs: labor (variety of staff), capital (complete belongings), complete energy of equipment and gear owned;
2 outputs: complete worth added and output worth
Xiaolong et al. [12] DEA-Malmquist 2 inputs: labor (variety of staff), capital (fastened belongings); 1 output: complete worth added
Lee et al. [13] Malmquist 2 inputs: labor (variety of staff), capital (complete belongings); 2 outputs: complete income, market share
Tan et al. [22] DEA-Malmquist 2 inputs: labor (variety of staff), capital (complete belongings); 1 output: complete worth added
Kapelko et al. [24] DEA-Malmquist Three inputs: labor (worker prices), capital (fastened belongings), materials (prices); 1 output: complete income
Chau et al. [25] Manufacturing operate four inputs: labor, materials, plant and gear, overheads; 1 output: gross output
Bernard et al. [26] Manufacturing operate Three inputs: labor (hours labored), capital (-), materials (-); 1 output: complete worth added
Lowe [36] Manufacturing operate 2 inputs: labor and capital; 1 output: complete output
Chau [40] Manufacturing operate 2 (Three) inputs: labor, capital, or intermediate; 1 output: gross output worth or complete worth added
Tan [41] Manufacturing operate 2 inputs: labor (labor hours), capital (fastened belongings); 1 output: complete worth added
Crawford et al. [42] Manufacturing operate Three inputs: labor (hours labored), capital (non-ICT belongings), materials (-); 1 output: complete worth added
Ruddock et al. [43] Manufacturing operate Three inputs: labor (hours labored), capital (non-ICT & ICT belongings), intermediate (-); 1 output: complete worth added
Chancellor [44] DEA 2 inputs: labor enter (variety of staff), capital enter (capital inventory); 1 output: complete worth added
Will a et al. [45] Färe-Primont DEA four inputs: variety of staff, paid up complete capital, complete belongings, complete energy of equipment and gear owned;
2 outputs: output worth, ground house of buildings accomplished
Moreno et al. [46] Manufacturing operate Three inputs: labor (variety of staff), capital (fastened belongings), materials (prices); 1 output: complete gross sales
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 5 of 18
When it comes to output, the variety of output indicators is said to the analysis technique. Usually,
the measurement technique at building degree may be divided into two sorts: manufacturing
operate technique and DEA-based index technique (see Desk 1). For operate technique, the decision-making
unit (DMU) is just one, while the output is a single-output. Against this, for index technique,
DMU is often a number of and the output is usually a single-output or multi-output. For instance,
Wang et al. [11] and Will et al. [45] used DEA-Malmquist and Färe-Primont DEA to measure TFP
in Chinese language building , respectively. Of their research 31 provinces had been handled as 31 DMUs,
2 outputs had been chosen. Equally, Li et al. [10] and Chancellor [44] regarded eight states as eight DMUs to
measure TFP in Australia, however the complete worth added was the one output. From a sensible evaluation
perspective, on this paper we innovatively measure TFP by taking the issue of migrant staff into
account. However, the sensible knowledge of migrant staff have solely the entire knowledge on the
degree (see Part Three), which suggests just one DMU. In the meantime, the entire worth added and complete output
worth are often used to measure the gross output, whereas the previous is extra most popular than the latter
because it might keep away from double–counting [25,40]. Consequently, we select the manufacturing operate technique
to finish the measurement, while the entire worth added is chosen as the one output variable.
When it comes to enter, labor and capital have to be thought-about. As well as, intermediate enter together with
supplies bought, power items and non-industrial providers [8,43], can be an essential enter
issue. Nonetheless, because of knowledge constraints, intermediate enter isn't a compulsory possibility [9–12,22,23].
Moreover, taking account of the truth that the information of intermediate enter are hardly ever accessible in
a creating nation like China, labor and capital had been finally chosen because the enter variables.
On this foundation, for labor enter, variety of staff and hours labored are various indicators,
what's extra, the latter is really useful by OECD [47]. Nonetheless, because of knowledge limitations, quantity
of staff was chosen as labor enter slightly than hours labored. Equally, fastened belongings inventory and
complete belongings inventory are two primarily employed indicators (see Desk 1), however complete belongings embrace intangible
belongings reminiscent of trademark proper and enterprise repute which must be seen extra as end result than
enter [48]. Thus, we lastly chosen fastened belongings because the indicator to measure capital enter.
2.1.2. Creating State of affairs A and State of affairs B
In stage 2 our fundamental process is to create State of affairs A and State of affairs B primarily based on stage 1’s findings.
In State of affairs A, all enter and output knowledge don't embrace the information of migrant staff, the measurement
result's considered a baseline for the following comparability evaluation. Correspondingly, in State of affairs
B the associated knowledge of migrant staff are added into State of affairs A from each the enter and output facet.
Therefore, from the angle of experimental design, State of affairs A is taken into account to be management group,
whereas State of affairs B is simply the experimental group the place migrant staff are the one management variable.
2.1.Three. Measuring the Affect of Migrant Staff on TFP
In opposition to this background, in stage Three our fundamental process is to measure the influence of migrant staff on
TFP and to discover the potential causes. As a mature manufacturing operate technique, Solow Residual
Method is chosen to carry out the above scheme. This technique has the next benefits. Firstly,
few variables are used, which makes knowledge assortment comparatively simple [2], particularly within the world context
of lack of knowledge on migrant staff [20]. As well as, this technique is especially utilized to measure TFP
from a macro perspective, reminiscent of nation and [37], consequently, it's appropriate for our analysis.
Intimately, we apply Solow Residual Method to measure TFP underneath State of affairs A and State of affairs
B firstly. Subsequently, a comparative evaluation regarding the influence of migrant staff on TFP in
Chinese language building is carried out. In that case, the influence of migrant staff on TFP may be
expressed all through a subtraction system, i.e., the influence of migrant staff on TFP = measurement
lead to State of affairs B – measurement lead to State of affairs A. On this foundation, causes for the above influence are
mentioned and analyzed.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 6 of 18
2.2. Solow Residual Method
Solow Residual Method, proposed by Robert M. Solow [2], is a neoclassical economics software
measuring the contribution of TFP to financial progress. Such technique requires an combination manufacturing
operate, in keeping with the earlier analysis [49–51], the operate is written as
Y = A(t)f(Okay, L) (1)
the place Y is the combination output measured by complete worth added, Okay and L symbolize capital and labor
enter in interval t measured by fastened belongings and variety of staff, A(t) expresses the extent of TFP.
TFP measurement entails varied behaviors and expertise assumptions. For this examine, fixed
return of scale and Hicks-neutral manufacturing expertise are assumed. Differentiate Equation (1) with
respect to time, we derive
dY
Y

= dL L + A(t)fK dK Okay (2)
To reduce price or maximize revenue, in keeping with marginal utility concept, the next equation
is established (Three)
aK = A(t)fK
, aL = A(t)fL
dA(t)
A(t) + A(t)fL YL YK Okay
Y YL the place aK and aL are the earnings shares of capital and labor, with the situation of fixed return of
scale, Equation (2) is rewritten as
dY
Y =
dA(t)
A(t) + aL
dL
L + (1 – aL)dK Okay (four)
For discrete knowledge reminiscent of time collection on this work, Equation (5) is derived as [52]
DY
Y =
DA(t)
A(t) + aL
DL
L + (1 – aL)DKK (5)
If we outline Solow Residual is SR, TFP change fee in manufacturing may be obtained
SR ≡ DY
Y – aL
DL
L – (1 – aL)DKK (6)
To measure SR, the three progress charges and parameter aL on the best facet of Equation (6) are
calculated. Usually, Y is often precise worth of the present interval. Herein, to acquire DY/Y, the impact
of worth issue might be excluded firstly.
In step with statistical guidelines and former analysis [12], the gross worth added (Y) consists of 4
elements, simply exhibited as follows
Y = D + R + M + N (7)
the place D is depreciation of fastened belongings in examine interval, R represents employees salaries together with laborage
payable and welfarism payable, M displays revenue, N presents tax and surtax.
aL can be decided prematurely. From an economics perspective, aL is the earnings share of labor
in essence [52]. Below this circumstance, we derive
aL =
RY
(eight)
As well as, the expansion charges for enter variables are additionally estimated. For labor enter, the quantity
of staff is adopted, subsequently, DL/L can be obtained simply. Quite the opposite, for capital enter,
DK/Okay is way tougher to acquire than DL/L, as a result of fastened belongings are cumulative figures which might be effected
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 7 of 18
by depreciation, incremental fastened belongings funding and worth issue. To unravel this drawback, the
Perpetual Stock Technique (PIM) is used as follows [53–55]

Kt+1 = Kt(1 – dt+1) + PItt++11
= Kt(1 – DKt+t 1 ) + PItt++11 , t = Zero, 1, (9)
· · ·
the place Kt+1 and Kt symbolize fastened belongings within the interval t+1 and t, dt+1 and It+1 categorical depreciation fee
and incremental fastened belongings funding, Dt+1 and Pt+1 replicate depreciation of fastened belongings and the value
index. Herein, K0 is fastened belongings inventory in Zero interval, it's calculated as follows [50,53].
K0 = I0
(g + d) (10)
the place I0 is preliminary incremental fastened belongings funding, g and d are the common capital progress fee and
depreciation fee. On this foundation, DK/Okay is obtained.
Three. Analysis Knowledge
Based on the analysis scheme reported in Part 2.1, the enter and output knowledge with out
together with migrant staff (State of affairs A) and the related knowledge of migrant staff have to be obtained.
On this foundation, the information of State of affairs B may be acquired and introduced in Determine 2. Resulting from knowledge availability,
the surveyed interval is restricted from 2008 to 2015.
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW Three of 18
Three
As well as, the expansion charges for enter variables are additionally estimated. For labor enter, the quantity
of staff is adopted, subsequently, ΔL/L can be obtained simply. Quite the opposite, for capital enter,
ΔK/Okay is way tougher to acquire than ΔL/L, as a result of fastened belongings are cumulative figures which might be effected
by depreciation, incremental fastened belongings funding and worth issue. To unravel this drawback, the
Perpetual Stock Technique (PIM) is used as follows [53–55]
= ,
t 1
t 1 t t 1
t 1
t 1 t 1
t
t t 1
I
Okay Okay (1 δ )
P
D I
Okay (1 ) t Zero,1,
Okay P
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
= – +
– + = 
(9)
The place Kt+1 and Kt symbolize fastened belongings within the interval t+1 and t, δt+1 and It+1 categorical depreciation
fee and incremental fastened belongings funding, Dt+1 and Pt+1 replicate depreciation of fastened belongings and the
worth index. Herein, K0 is fastened belongings inventory in Zero interval, it's calculated as follows [50,53].
)
Zero
Zero
I
Okay
(g δ
=
+
(10)
The place I0 is preliminary incremental fastened belongings funding, g and δ are the common capital progress
fee and depreciation fee. On this foundation, ΔK/Okay is obtained.
Three. Analysis Knowledge
Based on the analysis scheme reported in Part 2.1, the enter and output knowledge with out
together with migrant staff (State of affairs A) and the related knowledge of migrant staff have to be obtained.
On this foundation, the information of State of affairs B may be acquired and introduced in Determine 2. Resulting from knowledge
availability, the surveyed interval is restricted from 2008 to 2015.
The info of
State of affairs A
Enter knowledge
Output knowledge
Variety of staff
Fastened belongings
Complete worth added
China Statistical
Yearbook on
Building; China
Statistical Yearbook
The info of
migrant staff
Enter knowledge
Output knowledge
Variety of migrant staff
Salaries of migrant staff
Chinese language Annual Report
on Migrant Staff
The info of
State of affairs B
Enter knowledge
Output knowledge
Fastened belongings
Complete worth added + Salaries of migrant staff
Variety of staff + Variety of migrant staff
Determine 2. The method of knowledge assortment.
On this paper, TFP measurement is predicated on two-input components comprising fastened belongings and
variety of staff and an output issue being the worth added. As talked about in Part 1, the
official statistics of Chinese language building sector (Yearbook) doesn't embrace the knowledge of
Determine 2. The method of knowledge assortment.
On this paper, TFP measurement is predicated on two-input components comprising fastened belongings and quantity
of staff and an output issue being the worth added. As talked about in Part 1, the official
statistics of Chinese language building sector (Yearbook) doesn't embrace the knowledge of migrant staff.
Due to this fact, in State of affairs A the related uncooked knowledge excluding migrant staff is especially sourced from
China Statistical Yearbook on Building printed by the Chinese language Bureau of Statistics. For output
knowledge, the uncooked worth added knowledge are present worth. Thus, the worth added index in building deriving
from China Statistical Yearbook was launched to eradicate the impact of worth issue. By doing so,
2008 was chosen as base yr, all uncooked output knowledge had been on the worth degree of 2008. Equally, the fastened
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 eight of 18
belongings funding worth index originating from China Statistical Yearbook was utilized to take away the
impact of worth issue on capital enter. Nonetheless, simply as described in Equation (9), fastened belongings are
additionally influenced by depreciation and incremental fastened belongings funding. Accordingly, these knowledge
from China Statistical Yearbook on Building are collected. As well as, the collection of Zero interval
in PIM could be very important. Resulting from knowledge limitation, 1989 was thought-about as Zero interval, while the interval of
1989 to 2000 was chosen to calculate the common capital progress fee (g) and depreciation fee (d).
Actually, these preparations had been cheap, as a result of the common depreciation fee was as much as eight.23%
within the interval. In different phrases, fastened belongings fashioned earlier than 1989 can be absolutely depreciated in 2000 at
the newest. Then, in keeping with Equations (9) and (10), all uncooked fastened belongings knowledge had been on the 1989 worth
degree. Luckily, knowledge assortment of labor enter is way simpler. Following the earlier research [10],
the variety of staff must be embodied by annual common numbers. However, the uncooked
labor enter knowledge are a year-end quantity, so we handled it just by following system: the present
labor enter = (year-end variety of staff + final year-end variety of staff)/2 [56]. Concerning
labor enter, worker wage knowledge from China Statistical Yearbook on Building also needs to be
collected, which is used to estimate the share of labor enter.
As we've got famous, the manufacturing instruments which will type fastened belongings are offered by building
enterprises slightly than migrant staff who're typically solely pure suppliers of labor power [33].
Which means that migrant staff solely have an effect on labor enter and don't have an effect on capital enter
in any respect. Other than an enter perspective, in keeping with Equation (7), migrant staff may also impact
output by salaries of migrant staff. Due to this fact, the information of migrant staff collected are simply the
quantity and salaries, that are primarily from Chinese language Annual Report on Migrant Staff. For the
variety of migrant staff in Chinese language building, the Report didn't present instantly, however the complete
quantity in China and the detailed proportion in building may very well be obtained. Thus, the uncooked quantity
of migrant staff can be acquired by means of a easy multiplication. Actually, the information could embrace a
fraction of migrant staff who've been counted in China Statistical Yearbook on Building.
Therefore, to keep away from repeated statistics as a lot as potential, we have to determine the proportion of migrant
staff ignored within the Yearbook. Based on Chinese language prevailing labor regulation and social insurance coverage
regulation, contract signing fee and pension insurance coverage participation fee of migrant staff can successfully
replicate the ignored proportion [33], particularly the latter which is a compulsory rule. The 2 charges
have been about 25% and 5% since 2008, respectively [57], which meant that almost all of migrant
staff (95%) weren't included into official statistics within the surveyed interval. Due to this fact, the quantity
of migrant staff is derived primarily based on such proportion finally, particularly the migrant staff enter
= the common quantity illustrated within the Report × 95%. For the salaries of migrant staff, aside
from the issue of the entire quantity, the common month-to-month wage degree and months labored in a yr
are additionally essential affecting components. The info of those two components each come from the Report, besides
the common months labored in 2008 and 2009 (no statistics within the Report). However, throughout the
entire examine interval the common months labored of migrant staff had been very secure. To unravel the
lacking knowledge, a linear single transferring common technique with the reverse course was used. In accordance
to utility rules, the gap per transferring was Three. On this foundation, wage knowledge of migrant staff
had been obtained, particularly the salaries of migrant staff = the variety of migrant staff × the common
month-to-month wage × the common months labored. Clearly, the method of knowledge assortment on migrant
staff is predicated on an important speculation, particularly the official statistics (Yearbook) doesn't embrace the
knowledge of migrant staff, or not less than it excludes the overwhelming majority. So far, this speculation is simply
proposed primarily based on literature evaluation, which isn't sufficient. Thus, within the subsequent part we are going to additional
analyze and validate this speculation, which may also affirm the rationality of the information assortment
course of on migrant staff.
In abstract, the information of State of affairs A and migrant staff had been collected and listed in Desk 2.
On this foundation, as may very well be introduced in Determine 2 the information of State of affairs B can be obtained. As well as,
assumptions used within the modelling and knowledge assortment are important, that are the premise of this analysis.
Thus, a scientific abstract on these assumptions could be very vital, reported as follows:
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 9 of 18
• Assumption 1: The info of migrant staff are assumed to not be included within the official statistics
of Chinese language building sector (Yearbook).
• Assumption 2: For State of affairs B, capital enter is assumed to not be affected by migrant staff.
• Assumption Three: Free competitors market is assumed in Chinese language building .
• Assumption four: Return of scale is assumed to be fixed.
• Assumption 5: Hicks-neutral manufacturing expertise is assumed.
Desk 2. The associated knowledge of enter and output from 2008 to 2015.
Indicator
Yr
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Complete worth added
(Billion yuan RMB) 1248.89 1535.87 1754.67 1836.39 2162.95 2660.54 2819.37 2969.29

Fastened belongings 401.61 420.60 456.49 493.01
(Billion yuan RMB)
Variety of staff 336.93 375.64 507.29 531.31
(10 1000's of individuals) 3224.33 3493.76 3916.50 4006.46 4059.86 4397.80 4532.67 4815.32
Salaries of staff (Billion
yuan RMB)
Variety of migrant staff 730.63 949.11 1130.64 1308.15 1635.28 2109.97 2215.04 2274.19
(10 1000's of individuals) 2955.26 3318.02 3704.91 4250.50 4590.42 5671.94 5803.63 5561.89
Salaries of migrant staff
(Billion yuan RMB) 444.27 528.40 706.56 992.22 1206.12 1664.91 1910.56 1970.62
four. Outcomes
four.1. TFP Measurement underneath the Circumstance of State of affairs A
By making use of the information collected in Part Three to Solow Residual Method, the measurement end result
on TFP underneath the circumstance of State of affairs A is obtained. Determine Three simply presents the outcomes.
5
this foundation, as may very well be introduced in Determine 2 th knowledge of State of affairs B can be obtained. As well as,
assumptions used within the modelling and knowledge assortment are important, that are the premise of this analysis.
Thus, a scientific abstract on these assumptions could be very vital, reported as follows:
• Assumption 1: The info of migrant staff are assumed to not be included within the official
statistics of Chinese language building sector (Yearbook).
• Assumption 2: For State of affairs B, capital enter is assumed to not be affected by migrant staff.
• Assumption Three: Free competitors market is assumed in Chinese language building .
• Assumption four: Return of scale is assumed to be fixed.
• Assumption 5: Hicks-neutral manufacturing expertise is assumed.
Desk 2. The associated knowledge of enter and output from 2008 to 2015.
Indicator Yr
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Complete worth added
(Billion yuan RMB) 1248.89 1535.87 1754.67 1836.39 2162.95 2660.54 2819.37 2969.29
Fastened belongings
(Billion yuan RMB) 336.93 375.64 401.61 420.60 456.49 493.01 507.29 531.31
Variety of staff
(10 1000's of individuals) 3224.33 3493.76 3916.50 4006.46 4059.86 4397.80 4532.67 4815.32
Salaries of staff
(Billion yuan RMB) 730.63 949.11 1130.64 1308.15 1635.28 2109.97 2215.04 2274.19
Variety of migrant
staff
(10 1000's of individuals)
2955.26 3318.02 3704.91 4250.50 4590.42 5671.94 5803.63 5561.89
Salaries of migrant
staff (Billion yuan
RMB)
444.27 528.40 706.56 992.22 1206.12 1664.91 1910.56 1970.62
four. Outcomes
four.1. TFP Measurement underneath the Circumstance of State of affairs A
By making use of the information collected in Part Three to Solow Residual Method, the measurement end result
on TFP underneath the circumstance of State of affairs A is obtained. Determine Three simply presents the outcomes.
Determine Three. Determine Three.Gradual Residual ( Gradual Residual ( SR)SR)measurement in State of affairs A. measurement in State of affairs A.
The determine reveals that in the entire pattern interval (T: 2008/2009–2014/2015) TFP elevated
by 60.44%, while an enormous progress fluctuation all the time existed. Based on the fluctuation development, our
outcomes point out that throughout the first interval (T1: 2008/2009–2010/2011) TFP rose considerably (19.80%),
SR (TFP change fee) was 13.40% in 2008/2009, then dropped shortly and repeatedly to a backside of
1.36% in 2010/2011. Nonetheless, in subsequent years (T2: 2011/2012–2012/2013) TFP raised noticeably
(36.59%), SR grown dramatically to a brand new prime (14.80%) in 2012/2013. Against this, within the final two years
(T3: 2013/2014–2014/2015) TFP climbed up barely (four.05%), SR plunged steeply to a brand new backside
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 10 of 18
(-Zero.37%) in 2014/2015. Moreover, on a yearly foundation, the outcomes present that the annual common TFP
progress was 6.99% throughout the surveyed interval in State of affairs A.
Nonetheless, we pay particular consideration to the phenomenon that SR plunged steeply to be destructive in
2014/2015. For the collapse, we insist that some essential issue may be ignored, as migrant staff
talked about in Part 1. Other than this angle, the share of labor enter (aL) can additional show
our inference. From a perspective of economics, aL is the earnings share of labor enter in essence [52].
Therefore, in keeping with Equation (eight) the change of this parameter could show some precious evidences to
help the above discovering. Desk Three simply stories the parameter underneath State of affairs A and State of affairs B throughout
the surveyed interval.
Desk Three. The share of labor enter underneath two situations.
aL
Yr
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
State of affairs A Zero.59 Zero.61 Zero.60 Zero.59 Zero.62 Zero.64 Zero.63 Zero.63
State of affairs B Zero.69 Zero.71 Zero.71 Zero.72 Zero.74 Zero.76 Zero.76 Zero.76
As may be seen within the desk, in State of affairs A the share gained the highest by Zero.64 in 2013, while throughout
the whole analysis interval the common share was solely Zero.61. However, in keeping with the earlier
research, this share was often 2/Three and even as much as Three/four in developed nations [58–61]. For creating
nations, it's thought-about to be larger, as a result of the marginal product of capital is predicted to be
larger [49,62]. Moreover, for a labor-intensive , the share is taken into account to be a lot larger than a
common . For instance, as a labor-intensive , agriculture in China was proved to have a
larger share reaching to almost Zero.75 in a earlier examine [63]. Thus, as a labor-intensive in a
creating nations like China, the share of labor enter must be extra practically Three/four slightly than 2/Three
in Chinese language building sector, however all of our knowledge in State of affairs A had been lower than 2/Three. In different phrases,
some essential components about labor enter within the Chinese language building sector are certainly ignored throughout
this era. Against this, in State of affairs B the common share was Zero.73 throughout the entire analysis interval
which is according to earlier analysis and the above evaluation. Thus, the information of migrant staff
isn't included within the official statistics. Clearly, besides literature evaluation, assumption 1 has additionally
been confirmed and supported from the angle of theoretical evaluation. On this case, it's vital
to think about the issue of migrant staff to re-measure TFP underneath the circumstance of State of affairs B.
four.2. TFP Measurement underneath the Circumstance of State of affairs B
Subsequently, including the information of migrant staff described in Desk 2 into State of affairs A (detailed
course of may be seen in Determine 2), the measurement end result on TFP in State of affairs B may be introduced
graphically, as proven in Determine four.
This determine illustrates that in State of affairs B TFP cumulatively elevated by 70.86%, whist the annual
common TFP progress was 7.95% throughout the examine interval (T: 2008/2009–2014/2015). Equally, an
apparent progress fluctuation all the time existed, SR confirmed principally the identical development as State of affairs A, particularly
downward, upward and downward in flip. Based on the development, our outcomes exhibit that throughout the
first downward interval (T1: 2008/2009–2010/2011) TFP grew considerably by 22.07%, SR was 10.80%
in 2008/2009, then dropped steadily to a backside (Three.23%) in 2010/2011. Nonetheless, in subsequently
upward years (T2: 2011/2012–2012/2013) TFP elevated remarkably by 32.68%, SR rose quickly to a
new prime (12.82%) in 2012/2013. Quite the opposite, within the final two years (T3: 2013/2014–2014/2015) TFP
climbed solely by 16.11% in complete, SR introduced a gradual downward development, and eventually reached to a brand new
backside (four.20%) in 2014/2015.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 11 of 18
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18
7
Determine four. SR measurement in State of affairs B.
This determine illustrates that in State of affairs B TFP cumulatively elevated by 70.86%, whist the annual
common TFP progress was 7.95% throughout the examine interval (T: 2008/2009–2014/2015). Equally, an
apparent progress fluctuation all the time existed, SR confirmed principally the identical development as State of affairs A,
particularly downward, upward and downward in flip. Based on the development, our outcomes exhibit that
throughout the first downward interval (T1: 2008/2009–2010/2011) TFP grew considerably by 22.07%, SR
was 10.80% in 2008/2009, then dropped steadily to a backside (Three.23%) in 2010/2011. Nonetheless, in
subsequently upward years (T2: 2011/2012–2012/2013) TFP elevated remarkably by 32.68%, SR rose
quickly to a brand new prime (12.82%) in 2012/2013. Quite the opposite, within the final two years (T3: 2013/2014–
2014/2015) TFP climbed solely by 16.11% in complete, SR introduced a gradual downward development, and eventually
reached to a brand new backside (four.20%) in 2014/2015.
four.Three. The Affect of Migrant Staff on TFP
Based mostly on the ends in State of affairs A and State of affairs B, by conducting the comparative evaluation
reported in analysis design and scheme, the influence of migrant staff on TFP is derived, as may be
seen in Desk four.
Desk four. The accumulative influence of migrant staff on TFP throughout the surveyed interval.
Indicator (%) State of affairs A State of affairs B The influence of migrant staff
(1) (2) (Three)=(2)-(1)
Accumulative TFP progress 60.44 70.86 10.42
Annual common TFP
progress 6.99 7.95 Zero.96
On the one hand, the desk displays that migrant staff dramatically improved TFP by 10.42%
in complete throughout the surveyed interval. However, the outcomes present that the annual common TFP
progress was elevated by Zero.96% deriving from migrant staff. Though Zero.96% appeared very small,
in contrast with the baseline of 6.99%, it emerged superb progress by 13.73%. Due to this fact, our findings
successfully confirm and validate our preliminary suspicion and guess reported in part 1, particularly huge
affect of migrant staff on TFP does exist in Chinese language building .
Other than the view of entire surveyed interval, on the premise of the fluctuation development said in
Determine Three and four, from a sub-period perspective, the influence of migrant staff on TFP is exhibited
clearly in Desk 5.
Determine four. SR measurement in State of affairs B.
four.Three. The Affect of Migrant Staff on TFP
Based mostly on the ends in State of affairs A and State of affairs B, by conducting the comparative evaluation
reported in analysis design and scheme, the influence of migrant staff on TFP is derived, as may be
seen in Desk four.
Desk four. The accumulative influence of migrant staff on TFP throughout the surveyed interval.
Indicator (%)
State of affairs A State of affairs B The Affect of Migrant Staff
(1) (2) (Three) = (2) – (1)
Accumulative TFP progress 60.44 70.86 10.42
Annual common TFP progress 6.99 7.95 Zero.96
On the one hand, the desk displays that migrant staff dramatically improved TFP by 10.42%
in complete throughout the surveyed interval. However, the outcomes present that the annual common TFP
progress was elevated by Zero.96% deriving from migrant staff. Though Zero.96% appeared very small,
in contrast with the baseline of 6.99%, it emerged superb progress by 13.73%. Due to this fact, our findings
successfully confirm and validate our preliminary suspicion and guess reported in Part 1, particularly huge
affect of migrant staff on TFP does exist in Chinese language building .
Other than the view of entire surveyed interval, on the premise of the fluctuation development said in
Figures Three and four, from a sub-period perspective, the influence of migrant staff on TFP is exhibited

clearly in Desk 5.
Desk 5. The accumulative influence of migrant staff on TFP throughout the sub-period.
Accumulative TFP Progress (%)
State of affairs A State of affairs B The Affect of Migrant Staff
(1) (2) (Three) = (2) – (1)
T1(2008/2009-2010/2011) 19.80 22.07 2.27
T2(2011/2012-2012/2013) 36.59 32.68 -Three.91
T3(2013/2014-2014/2015) four.05 16.11 12.06
T(2008/2009-2014/2015) 60.44 70.86 10.42
The desk reveals that the influence of migrant staff on TFP was primarily concentrated within the third
sub-period (T3: 2013/2014–2014/2015), on this sub-period, migrant staff improved TFP by 12.06%.
In distinction, the influence was not important in T1 and T2, though these two durations had extra years
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 12 of 18
(5 years) in contrast with T3 (two years). Intimately, within the first sub-period migrant staff elevated
TFP solely by 2.27%, curiously, within the second sub-period the accumulative influence was even -Three.91%.
Clearly, with out contemplating the constructive or destructive, the influence in T2 was a lot larger than T1.
Consequently, the influence of migrant staff on TFP appears to have an intuitive rule, particularly the
affect of migrant staff on TFP has been growing with the extension of time.
5. Dialogue
Based mostly on the above findings, it may be seen that migrant staff have a major influence on
TFP enchancment. Based on analysis goals and design of this text, therefore, within the following
dialogue we primarily concentrate on what the explanations of such huge influence is. By doing so, we will
present sufficient and full interpretations for the above huge influence. On this foundation, the intuitive
influence rule of migrant staff on TFP is analyzed and mentioned. Concurrently, to enhance TFP
successfully, some solutions are proposed.
5.1. Trigger Evaluation on the Important Affect of Migrant Staff on TFP
From a purpose perspective, it's believed that the development of migrant staff’ high quality primarily
ends in the above huge influence. On the one hand, TFP may be improved by many components, reminiscent of
technological progress, enchancment of laborer’s high quality and administration innovation [8,9], however TFP
progress most often arises due to elevated data about manufacturing strategies [37]. In different
phrases, on the private degree, TFP progress primarily will depend on high quality enchancment. TFP was evaluated
by Solow residential strategy on this work, the place all of the labor enter together with migrant staff was
considered a homogeneous particular person. Throughout this course of, high quality distinction and alter isn't
taken into consideration in any respect. Due to this fact, we clarify the influence of migrant staff on TFP solely from
the view of high quality distinction and alter. However, Kangasniemi et al. [64] said that
migrant staff are considered no completely different to the official statistic staff, besides the standard they
embody. In the meantime, the earlier research argued that the standard enchancment of laborer would
improve TFP [37,65,66]. Thus, the standard enchancment of migrant staff can improve TFP as effectively.
On the premise of the above evaluation, high quality enchancment is taken into account to be the primary purpose for the
important influence of migrant staff on TFP.
Moreover, the development of migrant staff’ high quality is taken into account to be obtained primarily
all through studying by doing. Typically, on the private degree, high quality enchancment often relies upon
on schooling, coaching and studying by doing [37,41,64]. For schooling, migrant staff are often
not well-educated [31,67], while the schooling degree of this group has not improved considerably.
For instance, throughout the whole examine interval, practically 60% of migrant staff’ schooling degree was
junior center faculty [34]. Therefore, schooling isn't the primary means to enhance the standard of migrant
staff. Equally, migrant staff’ high quality enchancment will not be primarily attributed to coaching.
As a result of they often lack coaching as effectively [31,67], embarrassedly, this case has not been successfully
improved. For example, in keeping with Chinese language Annual Report on Migrant Staff, throughout the surveyed
interval the proportion of educated migrant staff didn't develop outstandingly, and all the time remained
about 30% [34]. On this case, studying by doing is taken into account to be the primary means to enhance migrant
staff’ high quality. Actually, studying by doing is work-based studying, particularly it primarily depends on the
accumulation of labor expertise to enhance high quality. Apparently, migrant staff usually have low
ranges of absence and work longer hours [14,67]. Due to this fact, these options simply supply the chance and
foundation for studying by doing.
Subsequently, from a path view, studying by doing to develop migrant staff’ high quality is believed
to principally depend on an invisible path dependency on migrant staff’ work choice. For migrant
staff in Chinese language building sector, on the one hand, they're often not well-educated, and
lack coaching, work ability and expertise [31,68]. Therefore, the preliminary high quality of this group is just too poor,
they can not discover a higher job in different industries. On this case, low high quality often forces migrant staff
to serve in building, as a result of they don't have a better option. However, in keeping with
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 13 of 18
Chinese language Annual Report on Migrant Staff, throughout the entire examine interval migrant staff in
building had larger earnings by practically 15% than different industries, in the meantime, migrant staff
in building had been usually supplied free lodging which might save about 15% of earnings [34].
Thus, extra earnings (top-of-the-line choices) and lack of ability and schooling (no better option) have
inspired migrant staff to remain and serve in building for a very long time. In that situation,
whether or not it's a passive or energetic alternative, a digital path dependence on work choice has been fashioned,
which causes migrant staff to work in building for a protracted interval. On this foundation,
in keeping with the so-called financial concept of studying by doing [41], the standard of migrant staff
might be step by step improved primarily by studying by doing. Particularly, for this path of principally
replying on the buildup of labor expertise to enhance high quality, low high quality of migrant staff
simply gives extra enchancment areas.
5.2. Trigger Evaluation on the Intuitive Affect Rule of Migrant Staff on TFP
As said within the final part, we analyzed and confirmed that the development of migrant
staff’ high quality is the primary purpose for the huge influence of migrant staff on TFP, while discussing
and verifying that high quality enchancment is obtained primarily all through studying by doing in Chinese language
building sector. Below this proposed logical body, path dependence on work choice to type
and promote studying by doing is explored and revealed. On the premise of those findings, subsequently,
on this part we discover and suggest the potential explanations for the intuitive influence rule of migrant
staff on TFP reported in Part four.Three.
In our opinion, the sport between the preliminary low high quality and high quality enchancment by means of
studying by doing determines the influence ruler of migrant staff on TFP. On the one hand, throughout
the surveyed interval greater than 26 million migrant staff (see Desk 2) as new comers served
in building, whereas they had been often not well-educated, and lack coaching, work ability and
expertise [31,68]. Therefore, the preliminary high quality of those migrant staff was believed to be too poor.
Furthermore, a constructive correction existed between the standard of labor power and TFP, which has been
proved by many economists [37,65,66]. Naturally, the preliminary low high quality of the brand new comers would
cut back TFP. However, primarily based on the trail dependency on migrant staff’ work choice,
all migrant staff’ high quality might be improved all through studying by doing, which might improve
TFP. Clearly, over time the share of recent migrant staff might be much less and fewer, and reduce of TFP
brought on by the preliminary low high quality might be weaker and weaker. Quite the opposite, the share of migrant
staff with expertise and ability might be increasingly more, progress of TFP from studying by doing will
be stronger and stronger. On this case, the dynamic recreation between TFP lower from the preliminary poor
high quality of recent migrant staff and TFP progress from the standard enchancment of all migrant staff,
simply explains and depicts the attention-grabbing influence rule of migrant staff on TFP.
Based mostly on the above theoretical evaluation, by making use of the information of variety of migrant staff in
Desk 2, perhaps extra info may be offered to interpret the intuitive influence rule of migrant
staff on TFP said in Desk 5. Intimately, at the start of the analysis interval, practically 30 million
migrant staff served in Chinese language building , which offered a strong foundation for high quality
enchancment all through studying by doing. In T1, the expansion within the variety of migrant staff was
comparatively average, the annual common variety of new comers was about four.Three million. Therefore, high quality
enchancment all through studying by doing to extend TFP performed a significant position, the results of the sport
was that TFP solely elevated by 2.27%. In distinction, the expansion of migrant staff was extraordinarily giant
in T2, while the annual common variety of new comers was about 7.1 million; even in 2013 greater than
10 million new migrant staff poured into building. On this case, the preliminary poor high quality of recent
comers to cut back TFP acted a extra essential position, the results of the sport was that TFP decreased
by Three.91%. Sadly, in T3 the quantity progress principally stopped, subsequently, on the entire solely
high quality enchancment all through studying by doing to extend TFP labored. What’s extra, the dimensions of
studying by doing was extraordinarily big. Below this situation, the influence of migrant staff on TFP
(12.06%) was primarily concentrated on this sub-period.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 14 of 18
5.Three. Solutions and Purposes
Actually, to enhance TFP, Chinese language authorities has taken a collection of measures, reminiscent of buying
superior mechanical gear and introducing new method [11,23,45]. From a based-result
perspective, the effectiveness of those measures is poor; TFP continues to be perceived to be low in contrast
with different sectors in China [6,9,69]. For this unsatisfactory efficiency, the primary purpose could also be that
migrant staff will not be taken into consideration. Embarrassedly, as an recognized essential influencing
issue, bettering TFP in Chinese language building from the angle of migrant staff is
hardly ever concerned amongst these measures.
Due to this fact, in keeping with our findings, making coverage to enhance TFP sooner or later ought to pay
particular consideration to the group of migrant staff, specifically, some measures must be made to
improve the standard of migrant staff. For instance, from a coverage perspective, these measures,
reminiscent of encouraging communication and respecting studying amongst migrant staff, must be
taken to boost the impact of studying by doing. Moreover, as a short-term and efficient technique,
extra trainings, together with on-job and even off-job coaching, must be offered to migrant staff.
Extra importantly, the comparative benefit of building (relative excessive earnings vs poor working
atmosphere and labor safety) is step by step disappearing [34]. Extra importantly, well-educated
younger migrant staff are reluctant to work in building , while the skilled migrant
staff have been leaving building sector since 2014 [34,70]. Accordingly, as a long-term technique,
these actions, reminiscent of bettering the poor working circumstances and proving sufficient labor rights, should
be applied instantly to draw and retain migrant staff.
6. Conclusions
On this paper, we measured and verified the influence of migrant staff on TFP in Chinese language
building throughout the interval of 2008–2015; Solow Residual Method was used to conduct
the measurement all through evaluating two situations, particularly State of affairs A with out contemplating
migrant staff and State of affairs B together with migrant staff.
The findings of this work may be summarized as follows. Firstly, for State of affairs A, throughout the
surveyed interval TFP elevated by 60.44%, while the annual common TFP progress was 6.99%. Secondly,
for State of affairs B, the entire and annual common TFP progress was 70.86% and seven.95%, respectively. Thirdly,
migrant staff have an impressive influence on TFP: throughout the examine interval this group improved
TFP by 10.42% in complete and elevated the annual common TFP progress by Zero.96%. Fourthly, from the
perspective of economics, it's believed that the group of migrant staff isn't actually lined within the
official statistics of Chinese language building sector. Lastly, the explanations for the above huge influence had been
mentioned and analyzed, which indicated that the primary purpose for such an influence was the standard
enchancment of migrant staff obtained primarily all through studying by doing.
On this foundation, it's indispensable to emphasise the worth of our examine. In concept, our work enriches
the physique of information on TFP measurement primarily by validating and revealing the explanations of migrant
staff’ influence on TFP. In follow, our findings can present precious reference for making insurance policies to
enhance TFP. For instance, from a coverage perspective, the coaching of migrant staff must be paid
particular consideration. Extra importantly, these explored conclusions are common and relevant to any
nation proudly owning migrant staff.
The restrictions of this examine are appreciated. Firstly, we validated and explored the explanations
of migrant staff’ influence on TFP. Nonetheless, we didn't talk about intimately and clarify fully
the mechanism of forming such influence, specifically revealing the mechanism by some quantitative
formulation. Secondly, 5 essential assumptions had been used on this work, nonetheless, solely assumption
1 and a couple of had been mentioned and verified earlier than the applying. By conference, the remaining assumptions
are used instantly. Clearly, this will pose a sure menace to our conclusions. Final however not least,
because of our analysis purpose and design, it's detached to detailed talk about and analyze the ends in
Figures Three and four, particularly from a yr by yr perspective to debate the evolution of SR. Undoubtedly,
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 15 of 18
we could purchase extra plentiful info to help our findings if they're analyzed and revealed.
Trying to the longer term, these limitations might be overcome.
Writer Contributions: G.Y. had the concept and completed the conceptualization; G.Y. and Y.W. conceived and
designed the analysis scheme; G.Y. and Y.Z. offered supervision; Y.W. carried out the scheme; Y.W., H.X. and
L.W. collected and analyzed the information; G.Y., Y.Z., H.X. offered the strategy of estimating capital inventory; Y.W. and
Y.F. wrote the paper; G.Y., Y.Z. and J.Z. modified the draft. All of the authors accredited the ultimate manuscript.
Acknowledgments: The funding of this work from the Elementary Analysis Funds for the Central
Universities (No.2018CDXYJG0047, 2018CDJSK03PT17), Graduate Scientific Analysis and Innovation Basis
of Chongqing, China (No. CYB18065) and Social Science Planning Venture of Chongqing, China (No.2018YBGL055,
2018ZD04) is gratefully acknowledged.
Conflicts of Curiosity: The authors declare no battle of curiosity.
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