AN INFANT CASE STUDY—
Many changes happen from conception to birth.During pregnancy, there are many changes that occur in the body of the mother and the developing fetus. Here are some key changes that occur from conception to birth:
Conception: Conception occurs when a sperm fertilizes an egg, resulting in the formation of a zygote. This process usually occurs within the fallopian tubes, and the fertilized egg then begins to travel down the tube towards the uterus.
Implantation: After about a week, the fertilized egg reaches the uterus and implants itself into the uterine lining. This process is essential for the pregnancy to continue, as the fertilized egg needs a supply of nutrients and oxygen from the mother’s blood to grow and develop.
Development of the embryo: Over the next few weeks, the embryo begins to develop into a more complex organism. The embryo’s body forms, and its organs and systems start to take shape. By the end of the first trimester, the embryo has developed into a fetus and is about the size of a cherry.
Development of the fetus: During the second and third trimesters, the fetus continues to grow and develop. Its organs and systems continue to mature, and it gains weight and size. By the end of the pregnancy, the fetus is fully developed and ready for birth.A single-celled zygote multiplies and grows over approximately 9 months into a living, breathing human being composed of trillions of cells. That’s quite an amazing feat! With such rapid growth occurring, it is not surprising that the developing fetus is vulnerable to a number of different environmental influences.For this Assignment, you will examine an infant case study to determine short-term developmental outcomes.Refer to the following Case Study about Sam, a male infant:An infant male, Sam, was born to Jane and Roberto. Jane works in the city as a medical transcriptionist, but requested 12 weeks of family leave effective immediately upon Sam’s birth. Sam was born 6 weeks premature, by Cesarean delivery. His Apgar score at 1 minute was 5; after receiving oxygen, his Apgar score at 5 minutes was 8. Apart from the first few minutes after birth, Sam has not required oxygen or respiratory assistance. Because of his prematurity, Sam stayed in the hospital for 72 hours before he was discharged. Jane drank occasionally throughout the pregnancy, but reported drinking most heavily during the last trimester of her pregnancy, which was about the time Roberto got laid off from his job. There is suspicion, although not confirmed, that Sam has Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Sam is a fussy eater, requiring short and frequent feedings. He has been home for 2 weeks and wakes up hungry every 2 hours. He does not sleep through the night. Roberto and Jane live in a house in a rural area. They do not have a network of friends and family who live nearby who can help, but Jane’s mother has offered to move in with them temporarily. Roberto and Jane’s mother get along very well. Jane is debating whether she should reduce her family leave and go back to work earlier than she had planned.Many of the details in the above case study have purposely been left ambiguous (e.g., ethnicity, geographic location, etc.) so that you can make some conjectures of your own and relate that to Sam’s short-term and long-term prognosis. To prepare for this Assignment:
Review the Learning Resources for this week and consider any environmental factors that might affect the infant’s development.
Search the Internet and/or the Walden library to find articles related to the case study that might support your findings.
For this Assignment:Write a 2- to 3-page paper and include the following:
Explain the environmental factors presented in the Case Study, as well as others that may be present but not specifically identified in the Case Study that might affect Sam’s development.
With the environmental factors you explained, further explain what you think the best case scenario and the worst case scenario might be for Sam’s short-term developmental outcomes and explain why.
Be specific, provide examples, and justify your response with citations from the Learning Resources/literature.
Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the Learning Resources for this course. Use proper APA format and citations.REFERENCES/RESOURCES REQUIRED READINGS
Berk, L. E. (2023). Development through the lifespan (7th ed.). Sage.
Chapter 2, “Genetic and Environmental Foundations” (pp. 42-72)
Chapter 3, “Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn Baby” (pp. 74-111)
Charness, M. E., Riley, E. P., & Sowell, E. R. (2016). Drinking during pregnancy and the developing brain: Is any amount safe? Links to an external site. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20(2), 80–82. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2015.09.011
Entringer, S., Buss, C., & Wadhwa, P. D. (2015). Prenatal stress, development, health and disease risk: A psychobiological perspective—2015 Curt Richter Award Paper Links to an external site..Psychoneuroendocrinology, 62, 366–375. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.08.019
Tzouma, V., Grepstad, M., Grimaccia, F., & Kanavos, P. (2015). Clinical, ethical, and socioeconomic considerations for prescription drug use during pregnancy in women suffering from chronic diseases Links to an external site.. Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science, 49(6), 947–956. doi:10.1177/2168479015589820
Grace, T., Bulsara, M., Robinson, M., & Hands, B. (2015). The impact of maternal gestational stress on motor development in late childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal study Download The impact of maternal gestational stress on motor development in late childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 87(1), 211–220. Credit Line: The Impact of Maternal Gestational Stress on Motor Development in Late Childhood and Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study by Grace, T., Bulsara, M., Robinson, M., & Hands, B., in Child Development, 2015/October. Copyright 2015 by John Wiley & Sons-Journals. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons-Journals via the Copyright Clearance Center. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tegan_Grace/publication/282873739_The_Impact_of_Maternal_Gestational_Stress_on_Motor_Development_in_Late_Childhood_and_Adolescence_A_Longitudinal_Study/links/56244b7d08ae70315b5db881.pdf
March of Dimes Foundation Links to an external site.. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.marchofdimes.org
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Birth defects Links to an external site.. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/index.html