Question 3 (short answer within 300 words) The Haddon Matrix is one useful tool for analysing events that result in injury, so that we can develop strategies to reduce injury risk. Use the Haddon Matrix (see Chapter 22 of Frumkin (2010)) to analyse risk for the following scenario: A twenty-year old female driver had attended a family celebration and consumed alcoholic beverages throughout the course of the evening. She departed for home before midnight, forgetting to fasten her seatbelt for the drive home. The road was dry and unlit. The driver, driving an older model compact vehicle, braked before a curve in the road, but her brake pads were worn and did not slow the car sufficiently to round the curve. She swerved and the car rolled over several times. The car did not have airbags. She was discovered shortly after and transported to hospital, but remained in a coma.
Question 5 (short answer in 500 words) Lisa is a nine-year-old child living with her single mother, Susan, in a city apartment. Susan left Lisa’s abusive father six months ago; he does not make child support payments, and Susan is afraid to take him to court. Susan didn’t finish high school, limiting her employment options, and works for two cleaning companies to pay for rent, food, and schooling for Lisa. Her hours have recently been reduced because the business is struggling in a weak economy. She would like to study to become a teacher, but has no time or energy after work. Their apartment block is next to a busy highway in an industrial part of town, with several factories nearby. Although Susan gets frequent headaches and Lisa has developed asthma since moving there, Susan believes that this is better than remaining in a violent relationship. Her family were angry with her for leaving her husband, so she has no family or social support. Susan tried to make friends with her neighbours when she moved in, but they swore at her and slammed the door. Lisa has asked for a bicycle to ride after school, but Susan cannot afford one, and there are no parks, footpaths or bicycle lanes for Lisa to ride on. Susan would not be able to supervise her as she often has to work late as a cleaner, meaning that Lisa cannot play netball after school because Susan is not able to drive her. Because she is too tired to cook when her shift ends at 8pm she often brings Susan something from an inexpensive takeaway restaurant for dinner. The final week of this subject focuses on prevention, but this fictional account demonstrates real limitations in people’s circumstances that create barriers for engaging in disease-preventive behaviours. When you develop a disease prevention plan, you need to understand the environment in which people live, so that you can develop effective prevention strategies that will work. What are the features of the social, economic and physical environments that create health risks to Susan and Lisa? 20 marks

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