The Digestive System and the Urinary System

Man loves meals and likes to eat. His urge for food is at all times good and in some circumstances, he'll eat meals even when he's not hungry particularly if the meals is tasty. After all, meals has to get into the blood to be carried to the physique’s cells. Solely soluble meals or meals which has already been dissolved can do that. A lot of the meals we eat, nonetheless, is insoluble. Even in the event you grind it down finely, it nonetheless gained’t dissolve. And so, to utilize it, our physique has to interrupt it down into chemical compounds which might dissolve. This breakdown known as digestion, and it takes place within the digestive system. After our physique fully makes use of the meals and its vitamins or minerals, it turns into waste and this waste needs to be eliminated. It's now the half or function of the urinary system to regulate the discharge of sure waste supplies filtered from the blood by the kidneys. Understanding these two techniques, working hand in hand, would additional enhance one’s appreciation of how our physique capabilities. Our digestive system is a tube with two openings and plenty of specialised organs. It extends from the mouth of the anus and can also be referred to as the gastrointestinal tract. An fascinating truth in regards to the gastrointestinal tract is that whereas meals or meals residues are in it, technically the fabric continues to be exterior the physique. Vitamins don’t “formally” enter the physique till they transfer from the house contained in the digestive tube, its lumen, into the bloodstream. From starting to finish, mucus-coated epithelium strains surfaces dealing with the lumen. The thick, moist mucus protects the wall of the tube and enhances diffusion throughout its interior lining. After we eat, the meals advances in a single route, following the foremost parts of the human digestive system, from the mouth or oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, abdomen, small gut and the massive gut or colon. The big gut ends within the rectum, anal canal and anus. . If the whole digestive system of an grownup human had been totally stretched out, it could prolong 6. 5 to 9 meters or 21 to 30 ft; positively one large tube. The mouth or the oral cavity is the doorway to the digestive system the place the meals is moistened and chewed. It may be stated that the polysaccharide digestion begins within the mouth. The pharynx is the doorway to the tubular a part of the system and to the respiratory system as nicely. It strikes the meals towards by contracting sequentially. Alternatively, the esophagus is the muscular, saliva-moistened tube that strikes meals from pharynx to abdomen. The abdomen is the muscular sac which stretches to retailer the meals we take, sooner than will be processed. Gastric fluid mixes with meals and kills many pathogens. If the mouth is the place for polysaccharide digestion, the abdomen is the place the place protein digestion begins. It secretes grhelin. Grhelin is the urge for food hormone which is chargeable for these people who at all times wish to eat. The small gut then again, has three elements. The primary a part of the small gut, specifically the duodenum which is C-shaped and nearly 10 inches lengthy, receives secretions from the pancreas, gallbladder and liver. The second half, the jejunum which is sort of three ft lengthy, is the a part of the small gut the place most vitamins are digested and absorbed. The third half is the ileum which is six to seven ft lengthy and absorbs some vitamins and delivers unabsorbed materials to massive gut. The big gut concentrates and shops undigested matter by absorbing mineral ions and water. The big gut of the grownup human is about 5 ft lengthy and it's divided into ascending transverse and descending parts. The final two main parts of the digestive system are the rectum and the anus. The rectum is the distension which stimulates expulsion of the feces whereas the anus is the tip of the digestive system and has a terminal opening by way of which feces are expelled. (Smith and Morton, 2001). The opposite system, urinary system, consists solely of the 2 kidneys, two ureters, urinary bladder and the urethra. The 2 kidneys are formed like beans, with the indentation or hilum, which faces medially. The kidney incorporates each excretory and accumulating components within the type of epithelial tubes and cavities, that are separated and supported by connective tissue laced with blood vessels. The 2 ureters, urinary bladder and urethra are all accumulating components. The ureters carry the urine from every kidney to the urinary bladder. A single urethra then carries the urine to the skin. We needs to be conscious that the urethra is one part of the urinary system whose last improvement and site differ within the female and male. The ureters and urinary bladder are additionally lined with transitional epithelium. Surrounding this lining are thick partitions fashioned by a number of layers of clean muscle held collectively by connective tissue, notably outstanding within the urinary bladder. The urethra is lined by a mix of epithelial sorts, starting from transitional to stratified squamous. The stratified squamous is the epithelium attribute of construction near or on the skin of the physique (Premkumar, 2004). To sum the parts and capabilities of the urinary system, the 2 kidneys produce urine whereas the ureters convey the urine to the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder in return shops the urine whereas the urethra transports the urine out of the physique. The digestive system maintains the homeostasis within the human physique by way of mechanical processing and motility, secretion, digestion, absorption and elimination. In mechanical processing and motility, actions of the assorted elements, similar to enamel, tongue and muscle layers, break up, combine and propel the meals materials that we eat. In secretion, the digestive enzymes and different substances are launched into the digestive tube. Digestion happens when the meals that we eat is chemically damaged down into nutrient molecules till they turn into sufficiently small to be absorbed. Following digestion, after all, is absorption, the place the digested vitamins and fluid go throughout the tube wall and into blood or the lymph. Lastly, elimination takes place when the undigested and unabsorbed residues are eradicated type the tip of the digestive system or gastrointestinal tract. Whereas the urinary system maintains homeostasis within the physique by excreting and reabsorbing essential electrolytes, compounds and water. Relying on the modifications within the blood’s acid-base steadiness, the kidneys can both excrete bicarbonate or type new bicarbonate and add it to the blood. The required chemical reactions go on within the cells of the so referred to as nephron tubule partitions. For instance, when the blood is just too acid similar to after we drink softdrinks or soda, water and carbon dioxide mix with the assistance of an enzyme. They type a compound referred to as the carbonic acid that then will be damaged into bicarbonate and H+. Then, the bicarbonate produced within the reactions strikes into the interstitial fluid, and type there into peritubular capillaries. It results in the overall circulation, the place it buffers extra H+. H+ fashioned within the tubule cells is faraway from the physique. It's secreted into the nephron’s lumen, the place it could mix with bicarbonate ions within the filtrate. Sadly for them, these ions can’t cross the tubule wall. However when bicarbonate is just not out there, the surplus H+ combines with phosphate ions or ammonia and is excreted within the urine. That is how kidneys rid the physique of hydrogen ions. Alternatively, when the blood is just too alkaline, chemical changes within the kidneys usually make sure that much less bicarbonate is reabsorbed into the bloodstream. Based mostly on how the construction and performance of two organ techniques collaborate to take care of the physique’s homeostasis, I feel that a robotic having a digestive system and urinary system precisely alike that of the people is unimaginable. Robots can be utilized to remedy or deal with digestive or urinary system issues however robots having these techniques appear unimaginable. Extra usually, robots are used to deal with people and assist medical doctors in surgical procedures. That is evident in the usage of robots in surgical procedure or the so-called “Surgical Robotics” which is taken into account to be the “state-of-the-art and future development, particularly in direction of autonomy” (Finlay, 2007). The examples of medical robotic taxonomy are medical robots, surgical robotics, non-surgical robotics, picture guided robots and multi-arm telemanipulators. They're additionally utilized in neurosurgery and there are new developments such because the creating strategic surgical robots and tactical surgical robots. Quite the opposite, robots could have a “digestive system or urinary system” that's comparable or capabilities the identical approach because the digestive system or urinary system of people, however not completely or precisely the identical. If people had been to create robots with digestive techniques of urinary techniques, then that may be actually tough and the ensuing undertaking can be actually advanced. Along with this, it could require us to develop subtle nanotechnology or use numerous nanotechnology simply to create one digestive system or one urinary system. In any case, it's the physique which secretes the enzymes or chemical compounds which conducts the bodily processes wanted within the human physique. A robotic can not merely produce the chemical compounds that are precisely the identical as what our physique creates or secretes. A hypothetical digestive and urinary system for a robotic would look just like the elements and processes that happen contained in the vehicles. The gasoline is the robotic’s meals and the carburetor or the pistons are the enamel of the robotic. An engine will function the abdomen and within the case of a spark ignition engine, the spark will probably be just like the chemical compounds or enzyme which the digestive system releases with the intention to digest or ignite the meals. The gasoline which was not correctly utilized or if incomplete combustion happens, carbon dioxide or different fuel emissions (just like feces within the human physique) will probably be launched within the exhaust.
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