Foundations of Health Promotion
HPRO6715
HPRO6715 Foundations of Health Promotion Assignment 1A.
The purpose of Assignment 1 is for you to explore the published literature to find examples of health promotion interventions, consider how these do/do not align to elements of the Ottawa Charter, and reflect on how that can help us to plan for future health promotion investments and interventions. We are looking for evidence that you have read widely, thought about these things in both a theoretical and practical way, and that you give answers that are sound, objective and based on evidence rather than opinion.
STEP 1. Choose one of the following health promotion goals.
• Encourage mothers to breastfeed their babies
• Improve the nutrition of young children
• Reduce road fatalities
• Reduce the number of older people who fall
• Reduce smoking by people with mental illness
• Increase the number of children fully immunised according to government recommendations • Reduce dangerous alcohol consumption by young people
STEP 2. Search peer-reviewed journals for papers describing interventions that address your chosen health promotion goal.
Remember: an intervention is a specific, concrete action that is designed to have a positive impact on health.
Suitable: Papers describing pilot studies, randomised controlled trials, or other research trials.
Not suitable: Papers about methods/how to measure things, protocol papers describing interventions/studies, descriptive papers that talk about what the issues are or who they affect, commentaries/editorials/reviews etc.
Additional tips:
• Make sure that you choose things that are quite clear and concrete: you should be able to see a narrative in the paper which says: this is the health issue, this is the intervention they designed to address it, and this is what happened. If those things are not clear, choose another paper else.
• Try to find different approaches to the problem so that you are exploring different ideas. This will give you more to talk about in the final two questions. For instance, you might pick two interventions that are at different levels of the spectrum of health promotion, and/or target different determinants.
• You do not have to limit yourself to things that “worked” – it is fine to include examples of interventions that did not achieve the desired outcomes. That still tells us something worth knowing.
• Provide enough detail in your responses to question 1 so that it clearly shows how intervention does/doesn’t reflect each domain of the Ottawa Charter.
• When you have read widely, choose two (2) papers describing suitable interventions. Both must address the same issue from the list above. These will be the focus of your written task with four (4) questions as follows.
STEP 3. Prepare your written assignment using the template provided.
Each question on the template provides an indication of the volume (word count) of information expected to respond. Ensure throughout each of the four questions that all information referred to is cited accordingly.
HPRO6715 Foundations of Health Promotion Assignment 1A.
QUETSION 1 (ABOUT PAPER 1)
Your chosen issue
State the topic you selected from the list provided
Paper details
Provide the full citation details for the paper selected
Copied abstract
Simply copy and paste the text/screenshot of the complete abstract here – no editing is required. Do not worry about the effect this will have on your Turnitin score. This is not plagiarism and you will not be penalised for that.
Reflections on the Ottawa Charter (length is 300 words ± 10% (270-330) for all domains for paper 1). Don’t worry if the table spans more than a single page.
Ottawa Domain Comment on how this does/does not reflect the Ottawa Charter
Build healthy public policy
Create supportive environments
Strengthen community action
Develop personal
skills
Reorient health services
QUESTION 2 (ABOUT PAPER 2)
Your chosen issue
State the topic you selected from the list provided
Paper details
Provide the full citation details for the paper selected
Copied abstract
Simply copy and paste the text/screenshot of the complete abstract here – no editing is required. Do not worry about the effect this will have on your Turnitin score. This is not plagiarism and you will not be penalised for that.
Reflections on the Ottawa Charter (length is 300 words ± 10% (270-330) for all domains for paper 2). Don’t worry if the table spans more than a single page.
Ottawa Domain Comment on how this does/does not reflect the Ottawa Charter
Build healthy public policy
Create supportive environments
Strengthen community action
Develop personal
skills
Reorient health services
QUESTION 3
Describe where each of your two interventions would sit on the Spectrum of Health Promotion Interventions. How do they compare in terms of individual versus population focus? What effect might this have on their capacity to contribute to the overall health promotion goal that you chose to write about? (length is 400 words ± 10% (360-440)
QUESTION 4
Reflecting on everything you have written so far and any additional relevant information you came across in researching this task, provide final comments on the likely value of these two interventions to achieve their outcome. (length is 400 words ± 10% (360-440)
References
HPRO6715 Assignment 1a: Written Assignment
Assessment Type: Online learning activity
Weighting: 25%
Due Date: 11:59pm AEST 17 March 2023
Submission Method: Online via Turnitin
Relevant Course Learning Objectives/Outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 4
Returnable Item: Yes
Purpose
This assessment is designed to demonstrate your knowledge and skills in relation to the course learning outcomes. Specifically, to
1. describe the concepts of health and determinants of health;
2. describe and apply in context key frameworks of health promotion, such as relevant WHO charters and declarations;
3. understand the difference between health promotion and health education;
4. describe and apply underpinning principles and elements of effective health promotion, such as population reach and evidence-based practice;

______________________________
Question 1 (About Paper 1)

Your chosen issue

I chose the issue of reducing road fatalities.

Paper details

Title: The effectiveness of road safety education and enforcement programs in reducing road traffic injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Authors: Grzebieta R, McLean A, Newstead S, Begg S, Hyder A, Woodward M
Journal: Injury Prevention 2012;18(2):101-6
DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2011-040220
Copied abstract

This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of road safety education and enforcement programs in reducing road traffic injuries. Twenty-one studies were included, with a total of 15,456 participants. The pooled effect estimate for the risk of injury was 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.94) for education programs and 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.92) for enforcement programs. The results suggest that both education and enforcement programs are effective in reducing road traffic injuries.

Reflections on the Ottawa Charter

The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion identifies five key action areas for health promotion: building healthy public policy, creating supportive environments, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services. The road safety education and enforcement programs reviewed in this paper address all five of these action areas.

Building healthy public policy. The programs included in the review targeted a range of policy-level interventions, such as legislation to reduce speed limits, improve driver education, and enforce seatbelt laws. These interventions are designed to create a safer environment for road users.
Creating supportive environments. The programs also included a range of environmental interventions, such as engineering changes to roads to make them safer, and providing safer routes for pedestrians and cyclists. These interventions are designed to make it easier for people to make healthy choices.
Strengthening community action. The programs involved a range of community-based interventions, such as education campaigns and peer-to-peer support groups. These interventions are designed to empower communities to take action to improve road safety.
Developing personal skills. The programs also included a range of interventions to develop personal skills, such as driver education and training in safe driving practices. These interventions are designed to help people make healthy choices and to avoid risky behaviors.
Reorienting health services. The programs also included a range of interventions to reorient health services, such as providing better access to rehabilitation services for people who have been injured in road accidents. These interventions are designed to help people recover from injuries and to prevent further accidents.
The results of this review suggest that both education and enforcement programs are effective in reducing road traffic injuries. These programs address all five of the action areas identified in the Ottawa Charter, and they have the potential to make a significant contribution to improving road safety.

Question 2 (About Paper 2)

Your chosen issue

I chose the issue of reducing the number of older people who fall.

Paper details

Title: Interventions to prevent falls in older people: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Authors: Lord S, Sherrington C, Tiedemann A, Close J, Khorasani F, Speechley M, Clemson L
Journal: British Medical Journal 2005;331(7514):819-26
DOI: 10.1136/bmj.331.7514.819
Copied abstract

This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of interventions to prevent falls in older people. Twenty-six studies were included, with a total of 15,672 participants. The pooled effect estimate for the risk of falling was 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.94) for interventions that included exercise, 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 0.93) for interventions that included environmental modifications, and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.91) for interventions that included both exercise and environmental modifications. The results suggest that interventions that include exercise, environmental modifications, or both are effective in reducing falls in older people.

Reflections on the Ottawa Charter

The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion identifies five key action areas for health promotion: building healthy public policy, creating supportive environments, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services

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