Create a case-based presentation on a specific disease process from one of the units of study in the course. The focus of the presentation is the pathophysiology of the disease. The presentation should be 10-12 slides (or the equivalent is not using a PowerPoint or similar presentation application)

The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus.

Case Presentation

Patient: A 55-year-old male with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus for 10 years.
Chief Complaint: The patient presents with complaints of increased thirst, frequent urination, and fatigue.
History of Present Illness: The patient states that he has been experiencing increased thirst and frequent urination for the past few months. He also reports feeling more fatigued than usual. He has not had any other symptoms, such as weight loss, blurry vision, or pain.
Past Medical History: The patient has a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus for 10 years. He is also on medication for hypertension and high cholesterol.
Social History: The patient is married and has two children. He is a retired teacher and enjoys playing golf and spending time with his family.
Physical Examination: The patient’s vital signs are within normal limits. His height is 6 feet and his weight is 200 pounds. His blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg and his pulse is 80 beats per minute. His lungs are clear to auscultation. His heart is regular rate and rhythm. His abdomen is soft, non-tender, and non-distended. His extremities are warm and without edema.
Laboratory Studies: The patient’s blood sugar level is 300 mg/dL. His hemoglobin A1c level is 9%. His white blood cell count and platelet count are within normal limits. His electrolytes are also within normal limits.

Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects the way the body metabolizes glucose. Glucose is a type of sugar that is the body’s main source of energy. When a person has diabetes, their body either does not produce enough insulin or cannot use insulin effectively. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body to use glucose for energy.

There are two main types of diabetes mellitus: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that causes the body to attack the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is caused by a combination of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and age.

When a person has diabetes, their blood sugar levels can become too high. This can lead to a number of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage.

There is no cure for diabetes, but it can be managed with diet, exercise, and medication. With proper management, people with diabetes can live long and healthy lives.

Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

The goal of treatment for diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. This can be done with a combination of diet, exercise, and medication.

Diet is an important part of diabetes management. People with diabetes should eat a healthy diet that is low in sugar and carbohydrates. They should also choose foods that are high in fiber and protein.

Exercise is also an important part of diabetes management. Exercise helps to lower blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity. People with diabetes should aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise most days of the week.

Medication may be needed to help control blood sugar levels. There are a number of different types of diabetes medications available. The type of medication that is best for a person will depend on their individual needs.

Conclusion

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects the way the body metabolizes glucose. It can be managed with diet, exercise, and medication. With proper management, people with diabetes can live long and healthy lives.

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