Case Study Analysis: A Patient with Chronic Low Back Pain

The patient, Mrs. X, is a 48-year-old woman who presents with chronic low back pain. The pain started two years ago and has gradually become more severe, with occasional radiation to her left leg. Mrs. X reports that the pain is constant, with periods of exacerbation, and is aggravated by prolonged sitting and standing. She has tried over-the-counter pain relievers and physical therapy with minimal improvement. She now seeks medical intervention for the management of her symptoms.

Clinical Impression

Mrs. X’s chronic low back pain is consistent with a degenerative spine condition, such as lumbar spondylosis, which is characterized by wear and tear of the spinal discs, joints, and ligaments. The pain radiation to her leg may indicate nerve involvement, which can occur due to spinal stenosis or a herniated disc. Additionally, her symptoms being aggravated by prolonged sitting and standing suggests that postural factors may be contributing to her pain.

Diagnostic Testing

Imaging studies, such as X-rays or MRI scans, may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis of lumbar spondylosis or identify any spinal abnormalities. A nerve conduction study or electromyography may also be conducted to evaluate for nerve involvement.


Initial treatment may include non-invasive interventions, such as physical therapy, exercise, and pain management. Pain relievers, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may be prescribed to manage pain and inflammation. Additionally, physical therapy, such as McKenzie exercises or core strengthening exercises, can help improve posture and alleviate pain.

If non-invasive interventions are ineffective, more invasive treatments may be considered, such as steroid injections or surgery. Steroid injections can provide temporary relief by reducing inflammation, and surgery may be necessary in cases of spinal stenosis or herniated disc.

Psychological factors, such as anxiety or depression, may also be addressed through cognitive-behavioral therapy or counseling, as they can exacerbate chronic pain.


The prognosis for chronic low back pain varies depending on the underlying cause, severity of symptoms, and response to treatment. With proper management, such as physical therapy and pain management, many patients can experience significant improvement in their symptoms. However, in some cases, chronic low back pain may be debilitating and require more invasive interventions, such as surgery.


Mrs. X’s chronic low back pain is consistent with lumbar spondylosis or other degenerative spine conditions. A thorough diagnostic workup, including imaging studies and nerve conduction testing, is necessary to confirm the diagnosis and determine the most appropriate treatment plan. Treatment may include non-invasive interventions, such as physical therapy and pain management, and more invasive interventions, such as steroid injections or surgery, in cases of severe symptoms. Proper management of chronic low back pain can lead to significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life.


National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2019). Low Back Pain Fact Sheet. Retrieved from

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. (2019). Lumbar Spondylosis. Retrieved from–conditions/lumbar-spondylosis/

Chou, R., Qaseem, A., Snow, V., Casey, D., Cross, J. T., Shekelle, P., & Owens, D. K. (2007). Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain: A Joint Clinical Practice Guideline from the American College of

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