Understanding Core Determinants in LNG Bunkering Port Selection: Policy Implications for the Maritime Industry

In the contemporary maritime landscape, the adoption of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel source has gained significant traction due to its potential to mitigate environmental concerns and meet stricter emission regulations. Consequently, the establishment of appropriate LNG bunkering ports plays a pivotal role in facilitating the smooth transition towards greener shipping practices. This article aims to explore the core determinants influencing LNG bunkering port selection and shed light on the policy implications they entail for the maritime industry.

Geographical Location and Accessibility
The geographical location of a potential LNG bunkering port is a paramount consideration in the selection process. Ports positioned strategically along major maritime trade routes can effectively cater to the refueling needs of a broader range of vessels. Accessibility factors, such as water depth, tidal conditions, and navigational safety, are equally crucial for the safe and efficient handling of LNG carriers during bunkering operations. Ensuring adequate draft depth is essential to accommodate the vessels’ sizes, avoiding any potential bottlenecks in the bunkering process.

Infrastructure and Investment
The availability and adequacy of infrastructure play a pivotal role in determining the feasibility of an LNG bunkering port. Terminal facilities, including storage tanks, regasification units, and loading systems, must be sufficiently equipped to handle the cryogenic nature of LNG safely. Moreover, investment in advanced technologies, such as cryogenic transfer systems, is indispensable to optimize bunkering procedures and minimize venting and boil-off losses. A thorough assessment of the port’s existing infrastructure and the commitment to making future investments are critical aspects that port authorities and stakeholders must evaluate.

Regulatory Framework and Safety Standards
The establishment of an LNG bunkering port necessitates adherence to a stringent regulatory framework and safety standards. Compliance with international regulations, including the International Code of Safety for Ships using Gases or other Low-flashpoint Fuels (IGF Code), is indispensable to ensure the safety of bunkering operations. Port selection must, therefore, consider the host country’s commitment to enforcing maritime safety and environmental protection regulations. Additionally, adequate emergency response capabilities and risk management protocols are crucial components in the selection process.

Market Demand and Supply Chain Integration
An in-depth understanding of the market demand for LNG as a maritime fuel is instrumental in guiding port selection decisions. Ports with high shipping activity and substantial demand for LNG bunkering services are more likely to yield profitable returns on investment. Moreover, successful integration within the broader supply chain of LNG, including access to a reliable and cost-effective LNG supply, enhances the attractiveness of a bunkering port. Proximity to LNG production facilities or liquefaction terminals is a favorable factor in ensuring a steady supply.

Policy Implications

The core determinants elucidated above bear profound policy implications for the maritime industry. Governments and port authorities must collaborate closely to devise comprehensive and sustainable policies promoting the establishment and growth of LNG bunkering ports. Policy initiatives should:

Encourage Investment and Infrastructure Development: Incentivize private sector involvement in developing LNG bunkering infrastructure by providing tax incentives, grants, or subsidies. Facilitate public-private partnerships to bolster investments in state-of-the-art bunkering facilities.

Foster International Cooperation and Standardization: Advocate for harmonized international regulations and safety standards pertaining to LNG bunkering to ensure a consistent approach worldwide. Collaboration between maritime nations and industry stakeholders is vital in promoting the widespread acceptance of LNG as a marine fuel.

Conduct Market Studies and Feasibility Assessments: Governments should support comprehensive market studies to identify potential demand and evaluate the economic viability of LNG bunkering ports. Such assessments would aid in informed decision-making and resource allocation.

Facilitate Training and Skill Development: Develop training programs for personnel involved in LNG bunkering operations to ensure adherence to the highest safety standards. Skilled and knowledgeable personnel are integral to minimizing risks associated with handling LNG.


The selection of LNG bunkering ports is a complex process that requires careful consideration of various core determinants, ranging from geographical factors to regulatory compliance. The successful establishment and operation of such ports hold significant promise in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the maritime industry and aligning shipping practices with stringent environmental goals. Policy initiatives that incentivize investment, promote international cooperation, and prioritize safety will undoubtedly propel the growth of LNG bunkering ports, fostering a greener and more sustainable maritime industry.


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Lim, S., Yoon, G. M., & Ryu, J. H. (2017). An analysis of the factors influencing the selection of liquefied natural gas (LNG) bunkering ports. Maritime Policy & Management, 44(4), 429-445.

Song, D. W., & Lee, H. (2016). The prospect of using liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a shipping fuel in Northeast Asia: The policy implications of LNG as a fuel for ships. Energy Policy, 88, 94-102.

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