list two Vitamins and complete them below:


Mechanism of action

What to monitor

Patient variables

Side effects

Adverse effects

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)


Prevention and treatment of scurvy (a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency)
Boosting immune function
Antioxidant protection
Wound healing support
Iron absorption enhancement
Mechanism of action:
Vitamin C acts as a cofactor in various enzymatic reactions in the body. It plays a crucial role in the synthesis of collagen, neurotransmitters, and carnitine. It also acts as an antioxidant, helping to neutralize harmful free radicals and protect cells from oxidative damage.

What to monitor:

Vitamin C levels in the blood: This can be done through blood tests.
Symptoms of scurvy or deficiency-related conditions, such as fatigue, weakened immune system, slow wound healing, or bleeding gums.
Iron levels if vitamin C is being used to enhance iron absorption, as excess iron absorption may be problematic for some individuals.
Patient variables:

Age: Different age groups may have varying vitamin C requirements.
Dietary intake: Patients with inadequate dietary intake of fruits and vegetables may be at higher risk of vitamin C deficiency.
Smokers: Tobacco smoke increases oxidative stress and lowers vitamin C levels, so smokers may require higher doses.
Side effects:

Gastrointestinal discomfort: High doses of vitamin C can cause diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal cramps.
Kidney stones: Excessive intake of vitamin C can increase the risk of developing kidney stones, particularly in individuals with a history of kidney stones or kidney problems.
Adverse effects:
While rare, allergic reactions to vitamin C supplements or injections can occur. Symptoms may include rash, itching, swelling, dizziness, or difficulty breathing. If any adverse effects are observed, medical attention should be sought immediately.

Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol)


Prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency
Management of conditions associated with calcium and phosphate imbalances, such as rickets (in children) and osteomalacia (in adults)
Support of bone health and calcium absorption
Immune system modulation
Mechanism of action:
Vitamin D plays a crucial role in maintaining calcium and phosphate homeostasis. It helps increase the absorption of calcium from the intestines and promotes its reabsorption in the kidneys. Additionally, vitamin D is involved in regulating the immune system and modulating gene expression.

What to monitor:

Vitamin D levels in the blood: Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels can indicate vitamin D status.
Calcium and phosphate levels: Monitoring these electrolytes can help assess the impact of vitamin D on mineral metabolism.
Bone health: Assessing bone mineral density or monitoring signs of rickets or osteomalacia may be necessary in specific cases.
Patient variables:

Sun exposure: Individuals with limited sun exposure may have a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency.
Skin pigmentation: Darker skin tones have a reduced ability to produce vitamin D from sunlight.
Age: Older adults may have reduced synthesis of vitamin D in the skin and may require supplementation.
Side effects:

Excessive vitamin D intake can lead to hypercalcemia (high blood calcium levels), resulting in symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, weakness, and frequent urination.
Rarely, excessive vitamin D can cause kidney stones.
Adverse effects:
In very high doses, vitamin D toxicity can occur, leading to severe hypercalcemia, kidney damage, or cardiovascular complications. It is important to follow recommended dosage guidelines and consult a healthcare professional before taking high-dose vitamin D supplements.

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