Microeconomics of Competitiveness Last Report The Danish Wind Power Cluster Warsaw Faculty of Economics – 13th January 2010 1. IntroductionPage 2 PART I: DENMARK 2. Nation BackgroundPage 2 three. Efficiency of the Danish EconomyPage three 2. 1 Commerce 2. 2 Price range and Fiscal Coverage 2. three Gross Home Product and Productiveness Development four. Cluster composition in DenmarkPage 5 three. 1 Historical past of Cluster Coverage in Denmark three. 2 Right this moment’s Context 5. The Enterprise Atmosphere in Denmark – Nationwide DiamondPage eight 5. 1 Issue Circumstances 5. 2 Demand Circumstances 5. Associated and Supporting Industries 5. four Context for Agency Technique, Construction and Rivalry 5. 5 Authorities – the Affect of Macroeconomic Insurance policies 5. 6 Establishments for Collaboration PART II: THE DANISH WIND ENERGY CLUSTER 6. Historic Growth of the ClusterPage 13 6. 1 Wind Power in Denmark earlier than the 1970s 6. 2 The Danish Wind Power Cluster within the 1970s – The First Hesitant Beginnings 6. three The Danish Wind Power Cluster within the 1980s 6. four The Power Coverage of the Danish Authorities for the reason that 1980s/1990s 6. 5 The Cluster of Trendy Wind Generators since 1990 7.
Description of the Wind Power ClusterPage 20 7. 1 Vestas: World’s no. 1 Turbine Producer eight. Wind Power Cluster – Cluster DiamondPage 22 eight. 1 Issue Circumstances eight. 2 Demand Circumstances eight. three Context for Agency Technique, Construction and Rivalry eight. four Associated and Supporting Industries 9. Strategic Points Dealing with Denmark and the Wind Power ClusterPage 28 10. Coverage suggestions for the suitable constituenciesPage 30 11. ConclusionPage 31 Bibliography Required Disclosures 1. Introduction This paper provides an perception into the Danish financial system and enterprise surroundings.
Moreover, it describes the cluster composition in Denmark and the way the insurance policies in direction of clusters have modified in recent times. The core of the paper is the excellent evaluation of the wind power cluster in Denmark the place the cluster is analysed with the usage of Porter’s diamond mannequin. Lastly, identification of strategic points dealing with Denmark and the wind power cluster will probably be offered and coverage suggestions given. PART I: DENMARK 2. Nation Background Denmark is positioned in Northern Europe between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea and has Copenhagen as its capital.
Its inhabitants consists of approx. 5. 5 million inhabitants whereof 9. 1% is immigrants and their descendants. The official language is Danish, however the stage of English proficiency could be very excessive. The Danish structure was codified in 1848 and right this moment the nation is ruled by a parliament consisting of 179 members. The election interval is 4 years however the prime minister can name an election at any time. Moreover, Denmark has a constitutional monarchy with Queen Margrethe II as the top. The Queen is apolitical and solely features a consultant for Denmark.
Denmark joined the EU in 1973 and has all the time seen it as a superb place for financial cooperation, however Danes have been extra reluctant in direction of the political integration leading to Denmark staying out of the Euro. Denmark is understood for its Scandinavian welfare mannequin, which ensures a excessive stage of re-distribution by means of taxes. The mannequin contains amongst different issues the “flexicurity” system, which will probably be elaborated later (Ministry of International Affairs of Denmark). three. Efficiency of the Danish Economic system Danish financial system can certainly be described as a contemporary one, oriented primarily at providers.
When it comes to its sources, the financial system relies upon to the best extent on human capital, which interprets right into a extra labor-related strategy in direction of enterprise. With over 5. 5 million residents, Denmark maintains a file low stage of unemployment, roughly 2. 1%. All these indicators contribute to a reasonably excessive way of life. For that reason Denmark was ranked 16th globally within the Human Growth Index, which displays a number of points, comparable to stay expectancy, information and training requirements measured by literacy price and way of life. . 1 Commerce Denmark has a excessive social assist without cost commerce. Over 76% of the inhabitants perceives globalisation as a optimistic phenomenon (Time). Danish primary buying and selling companions are the nations from European Union (70%), adopted by the USA. Denmark’s excessive involvement in world commerce is mirrored within the rating of commerce per capita, putting the nation on the ninth place globally, with the results of $17. 5 thousand of commerce per capita (World Truth Guide). Danish main export markets are illustrated within the desk under.
Desk 1: Danish main export markets in 2008 (Million DKK) |Germany |Sweden |UK |US |Norway |Netherlands |France |Italy |Finland |Spain | |103. four |85. 2 |48. 5 |35. 2 |32. three |26. zero |26. zero |18. zero |15. 7 |15. zero | Supply: Danish Exporters So far as exported items are involved, the principal merchandise are meals, industrial devices and equipment.
Moreover, Denmark exports chemical merchandise, furnishings and prescribed drugs. When it comes to imports, uncooked supplies and semi-manufacturers, in addition to shopper items prevail. three. 2 Price range and Fiscal Coverage Over a number of earlier years Denmark has been recording budgetary surpluses. Nonetheless, on the similar time the nation is dealing with a debt on the stage of 43 billion DKK. Due to extraordinarily low unemployment price, the federal government needs to be very cautious in rising their spending, as it could translate into dramatic overheating of the entire Danish financial system (resulting from salaries’ will increase).
Underneath such circumstances, the debt is anticipated to fall by 2015. Budgetary expenditures are financed primarily by means of excessive tax burdens. Denmark is by many described and perceived as a welfare state, which ensures many different social aids for its residents. Some of the well-known components of the welfare security internet is tax-funded healthcare and unemployment insurance coverage. Along with this, Denmark has a properly developed pension system, embracing all residents from the age 65.
With a view to finance expenditures, the fiscal system assumes virtually a 50% tax price, which is by far the best one on the planet (OECD Tax Database). three. three Gross Home Product and Productiveness Development Denmark has a excessive stage of GDP PPP per capita, which locations the nation on the 16th place globally. Furthermore, in keeping with IMF information, the nation holds a powerful fifth place on the planet when it comes to its nominal GDP per capita (World Financial Outlook Database). The distinction will be simply defined by a comparatively excessive stage of costs as compared with different benchmarking nations.
Denmark has been dealing with a gradual GDP development for a number of years, which was disturbed by the worldwide financial disaster. The disaster induced primarily a rise within the unemployment price and drop of personal consumption. Along with this, Denmark suffered beneath a big lower in exports, which naturally translated into issues with commerce steadiness. Though it’s clear that such circumstances affected GDP development, economists declare that Denmark has already embarked upon the restoration path. Desk 2: Abstract of Danish GDP per capita PPP in USD 12 months |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 |2007 |2008 |2009 | |GDP ($) |29637 |30305 |31766 |33528 |35672 |37163 |37304 |36725 | |% change |1. 73 % |2. 26 % |four. 82 % |5. 55 % |6. 39 % |four. 18 % |zero. 38 % |-1. 55 % | Sources: Index Mundi report on Danish Economic system (2009) Regardless of sound financial development within the previous years, the nation is perceived to have a powerful underlying drawback with its future growth.
It’s projected that Denmark may have fourth-lowest productiveness development amongst OECD nations within the following years (Index Mundi, 2009). In addition to this, heavy governmental switch funds create an unhealthy state of affairs for different components of the financial system. Due to this fact, they may additionally translate into an obstacle in future development. four. Cluster Composition in Denmark Denmark is by far some of the fascinating nations from the attitude of clusters. It was among the many first ones to introduce sure clustering insurance policies and since that point it has been rapidly creating when it comes to the ultimate composition.
The nation – resulting from its success – was additionally included in Porter’s Ten-Nation research concerning the connection between worldwide competitiveness and the existence and energy of clusters (Yettin, et al, 1992). four. 1 Historical past of Cluster Coverage in Denmark The historical past begins within the early 1990s, when the Danish authorities determined to implement first steps aimed toward growth of the cluster idea. The evaluation, which was carried out originally of the method, indicated a number of areas for additional cluster growth. These have been: meals merchandise, IT, bio-health and development.
They have been firstly outlined as so-called Mega Clusters after which narrowed down within the late 1990s. At the moment ‘actual’ clusters have been outlined, e. g. industrial design, aluminium processing or biotech. Regardless of these efforts, the federal government was nonetheless selecting to proceed with an industrial coverage, fairly than a cluster-oriented one. The state of affairs modified within the 2000s with the introduction of regional initiatives. That assumed strategic choices being undertaken on the regional stage, fairly than on the central one. Thus, Denmark these days lacks a vivid clustering coverage on the nationwide stage.
Nonetheless, on the similar time there are quite a few regional initiatives that contribute to the method. All in all, the shift from governmental planning to the decentralized system proved to be well worth the effort, because it considerably supported the event of a sound clustering construction within the nation. four. 2 Right this moment’s Context Clusters in Denmark emerge completely on the regional stage. The nation is split into 5 administrative areas and 98 municipalities. Native authorities are the set off for respective cluster insurance policies.
Their concepts will be applied independently or be supported by particular companies, specifically the Nationwide Company For Enterprise and Development, The Danish Forest and Nature Company, the Danish Company for Science Know-how and Innovation and the Danish Council for Know-how and Innovation (Cluster Observatory). Other than that, the insurance policies contain additionally third events within the emergence course of, that are corporations, research- and academic establishments and distributors of technological information. Their cooperation is anticipated to end in a long-lasting relationship, in addition to information creation.
So far as sure clusters are involved, the 17 regional development environments have been established in 2001. Relying on the geographical location of the area, the principle clusters have been assigned to particular locations. They’re illustrated within the desk and determine on the following web page. Desk three: Abstract of Most important Danish Clusters |Development environments commenced in 2001 |Development environments commenced in 2002 | |Furnishings & Wooden |Fishing | Wind power |Meals | |Know-how & IT |Sub-suppliers | |Biotechnology |Chrome steel | |Manufacturing |Offshore | |Horticulture |Transportation | |- |Aluminium | |- |Robotic know-how | |- |Occasion financial system | |- |Finance | |- |Seed-growing | Supply: Nordic Innovation Determine 1: Denmark Exports Portfolio by Cluster [pic] So far as challenges forward are involved, Denmark nonetheless has sure areas for enchancment.
Initially, the nation has to place a powerful emphasis on information creation and growth of competence environments. As most initiatives are deliberate and carried out on the regional stage, such environments might function information facilities enabling cooperation of assorted gamers and clusters as a complete. Thus, it creates an enormous duty for respective authorities to maneuver a step forward in direction of constructing a sound community and cooperation on the upper stage. 5. The Enterprise Atmosphere in Denmark – Nationwide Diamond Evaluation Through the use of Porter’s “Diamond Mannequin” as a framework the aggressive strengths and weaknesses of the Danish enterprise surroundings will probably be analysed. First it’s nalysed how Denmark is acting on the 4 elements: Issue circumstances, demand circumstances, associated & supporting industries and context for agency technique, construction and rivalry. Then it will likely be analysed how the Danish authorities influences the various factors by means of macroeconomic insurance policies and establishments. Lastly, it will likely be described how establishments assist collaboration between the enterprise surroundings, universities and the general public sector. 5. 1 Issue Circumstances Denmark is ranked no. 6 on infrastructure within the IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook. Particularly the essential and technological infrastructure is excessive whereas the scientific infrastructure in Denmark solely reaches a spot as no. 15. As regards to training Denmark is ranked as no. 1.
College and administration training meet the wants of a aggressive financial system and the enterprise group. Furthermore, coaching of staff is a precedence for corporations which be sure that labour turn out to be extra specialised and keep updated on innovation and developments inside their space. Though, it appears like there isn’t a finger to placed on training in Denmark there are a number of future challenges. Sooner or later Denmark should increase the contribution of human capital to productiveness development (OECD, 2009). As regards to the labour market there was a slowdown in labour productiveness and a powerful development in wages, which makes Danish labour comparatively dearer. The expansion in wages has been bolstered by efficient alternate price appreciation.
Whereas the demand for labour is weak through the disaster there may be nonetheless a necessity to boost labour provide sooner or later. A necessity that the Danes in all probability can’t fulfil and it could subsequently be obligatory to draw overseas highly-skilled labour. The present disaster has made it tougher to lend cash and the credit score circumstances in Denmark are tight in the meanwhile (OECD, 2009). 5. 2 Demand Circumstances An instance of how the character of the house demand has helped construct aggressive benefit is the environmental consciousness of Danish customers. This has led Denmark to be aggressive inside for instance water air pollution management tools, but in addition many different merchandise associated to the surroundings (Dess, et al. , 2004).
The Danish customers are typically comparatively demanding and quality-conscious. Moreover, they wish to boycott merchandise in the event that they one way or the other get unhealthy information concerning the merchandise (Agri-food Commerce Service). This may strain corporations to fulfill excessive requirements and prod them to innovate and improve (Porter, 2008). The challenges for demand circumstances in the meanwhile are the diminished family wealth and the rising employment, which decreases the Danes’ buying energy. It’s laborious to say whether or not the demand circumstances in Denmark create a superb surroundings for companies. It will likely be extremely depending on the particular enterprise space. 5. three Associated and Supporting Industries
As talked about, cluster deal with a regional stage has elevated and a number of other native initiatives have been established (Nordic Innovation, Cluster Observatory). The continual focus signifies that cluster growth have good circumstances and this is also an indicator for a excessive stage of associated and supporting industries. Although, it’s laborious to present a basic image about associated and supporting industries in Denmark. The truth that Denmark geographically is a small nation might result in the thought that the small scale market isn’t large enough to get suppliers to find in Denmark. 5. four Context for Agency Technique, Construction and Rivalry One of many predominant benefits for corporations positioned in Denmark is the co-operative labour-employer relations and the so-called “flexicurity mannequin”.
When rights and types of governance are developed on the Danish labour market each commerce unions and employers’ associations are essential gamers. Commerce union density is about 74% and the density of employers’ associations is about 52%. The commerce unions and the employers’ affiliation agree that the “flexicurity” mannequin is a bonus for the Danish labour market and the enterprise surroundings. “Flexicurity” refers back to the versatile Danish labour market and the excessive stage of social safety. The coverage was first launched in Demark within the 1990s as a response to excessive unemployment price. First steps of implementation have been undertaken in 1994 and anxious in-depth reforms of labor market, aimed primarily at discount of structural unemployment, in addition to introduction of stable welfare schemes.
Firms can simpler regulate to up and down turns within the financial system due to simple hiring and firing in addition to work time and wage flexibility. Commerce unions settle for this flexibility as a result of its members are protected by the state, which offers them with excessive unemployment advantages and entry to well being providers, training, and many others. (Jensen, 2008). Owing to the “flexicurity” mannequin, Danish financial system cherishes now a low stage of unemployment, in addition to low social exclusion charges. Nonetheless, the coverage requires a trade-off of excessive fiscal burdens for residents. Financial slack, weak exports and decreased funding in R&D signifies that native rivalry may very well be on a standstill (OECD, 2009). 5. 5 Authorities – the Affect of Macroeconomic Insurance policies
Authorities by means of its insurance policies should guarantee an surroundings the place companies can achieve aggressive benefit. With a view to guarantee a functioning capital market through the disaster the federal government has given ensures to banks and its clients in addition to capital injections. This has improved the capital market and given higher entry to capital for companies. Due to the gradual development the Danish authorities has launched a “Development Discussion board”, which can handle the problem of productiveness development and the way it may be improved. One other coverage which helps creating good issue circumstances for the Danish enterprise surroundings is the robust labour market insurance policies, which provide activation and coaching for unemployed in addition to supplementary coaching for workers.
On this method unemployed keep in contact with the labour market and it’s ensured that their abilities are up-to-date when companies want them. Moreover, labour market insurance policies attempt to assist worldwide recruitment and to maintain folks on the job market longer earlier than they retire to spice up labour provide, which will probably be in excessive demand after the disaster. Fiscal coverage has boosted disposable earnings and demand by a significant tax reform, which suggests tax cuts for households. Furthermore, the federal government has launched the funds from a particular obligatory pension saving programme, which give households additional liquidity (OECD, 2009). Moreover, the rate of interest is now the bottom ever at 1. 15 %, that are excellent news for the households with a mortgage mortgage (Guardian, 2010).
In 2006, the Danish authorities launched a globalisation technique for Denmark, which established quite a lot of new initiatives inside training, analysis and growth, entrepreneurship and an innovate society. One of many goals of the technique is to make Denmark extra prepared and open for world enterprise (Globalisering, 2006). Moreover, in 2009 the Danish authorities has launched a number of measures to encourage a “inexperienced development” restoration from the monetary disaster. The initiatives embrace amongst others “inexperienced transport”, improved environmental efficiency of the agricultural sector and a house restore and renovation incentive to save lots of power (OECD, 2009). These methods, insurance policies and initiatives create a greater surroundings for corporations to compete in. Determine 2 pic]Supply: Group evaluation 5. 6 Establishments for Collaboration There are a number of establishments supporting and dealing along with Danish companies. Universities just like the IT College of Denmark, Technical College of Denmark and Copenhagen Enterprise Faculty work actively with corporations, trades and industries (ITU, DTU, CBS). Moreover, the Confederation of Danish Industries as a consultant for a lot of industries additionally has shut ties to completely different enterprise colleges and universities (DI). “Spend money on Denmark”, part of the Danish Ministry for International Affairs, helps overseas corporations to find in Denmark and create joint ventures with Danish corporations (Investindk).
Furthermore, a number of information facilities like “Innovation Heart Copenhagen”, “Thoughts Lab” and “Innovation Lab” work along with corporations to innovate and improve know-how and enterprise in Denmark (Innovation Lab). PART II: THE DANISH WIND ENERGY CLUSTER 6. Historic Growth of the Cluster 6. 1 Wind Power in Denmark earlier than the 1970s As a result of Denmark’s massive shoreline, the local weather is characterised by constant and comparatively robust winds. The absence of different pure sources than wind influenced Denmark to take a pioneer’s function in beginning an effort to implement wind know-how as foundation for electrification and to experiment with it (Vestergaard et. al, 2004).
The primary windmill in Denmark was talked about 1259 in Flong. The trendy wind power utilization has a convention that covers greater than 100 years of analysis in meteorology and wind turbine manufacturing. In 1891 Poul La Cour, a Danish professor in pure science on the Askov People Excessive Faculty, and a staff of scientist constructed the primary wind turbine funded by the Danish authorities. La Cour was drawing on the outcomes of two modern Danish engineers and scientists. H. C. Vogt and J. Irminger participated along with the American P. S. Langley in formulating fashionable idea on aerodynamics and raise drag with the aim to experiment with wind energy to product electrical energy (Vestergaard, et al. , 2004).
In 1918 a fourth of all Danish rural stations (120) used wind generators to generate energy. After the World Battle I the Danish curiosity in wind Power waned, due to the ample provide of fossil gas. The machines have been quickly outdated – in 1920 solely 75 generators have been left (Andersen, 1999). By the 1930s Denmark was forward of many different nations within the wind turbine business and generators grew to become conventional within the Danish countryside. La Cour gave programs on the Askov People Excessive Faculty in order that it grew to become attainable to check wind power for Danish „wind electricians“. Quickly La Cour and one in all his college students grew to become probably the most outstanding producers in Denmark. Nonetheless at the moment there was nonetheless no actual worldwide competitors.
One of many college students in wind power was Johannes Juul who attended La Cour? s programs in 1904 and later labored as chief engineer for an influence firm, SEAS. Juul began an R&D programme in wind power utilization. This R&D effort fashioned the idea for his design of a contemporary electrical energy wind turbine in-built 1957, which is right this moment properly generally known as the 200kW Gedser machine. The Gedser machine was put in in 1959 and was in operation till 1967 (DWIA, 2008). 6. 2 The Danish Wind Power Cluster within the 1970s – The First Hesitant Starting Within the 1970 there was an awakening inexperienced motion within the Western nations. This was inspired by the primary and second oil disaster in 1973 and 1979.
Denmark which was enormously depending on imported oil pursued an energetic coverage of power financial savings, rising self sufficiency, and diversification of power sources till the mid 1980s. Since then, power coverage has more and more promoted the usage of renewable power to make sure environmentally sustainable financial growth (Krohn, 2002). This rising political deal with environmental safety and sustainable growth offered the framework for the event of the Danish wind power sector. The sensible and technical growth within the 1970s was first carried out by few entrepreneurs, tradesmen and other people with excessive beliefs about renewable power. Christian Riisager was a carpenter from west Jutland.
Within the mid 1970s, he was one of many first who efficiently designed a turbine to be marketed and related to the grid. The turbine was a 15kW turbine which generated extra electrical energy than the family might devour, the surplus electrical energy went into the grid. The Riisager turbine was the idea for contemporary wind generators with excessive towers and three blades. Riisager produced greater than 70 generators and later he established the agency Wind-Matic (DWIA, 2008). Karl Erik Jorgensen additionally began to make wind generators within the mid 70s. In 1978, he teamed up with Henrik Stiesdal, a younger pupil and labored on a three-blade turbine. In 1978 they developed a 30 kW turbine with an enhanced security system.
Vestas, which manufactured agricultural machines at the moment, purchased the turbine on a license and began in-house manufacturing and growth of wind generators (DWIA, 2008). Whereas these revolutionary designs of small machines appeared politicians started to take curiosity within the new growth. Partly due to the power provide disaster, partly as a response to the favored opposition to nuclear energy in Denmark. An incentives programme within the type of capital grants for set up of wind generators (30% of set up prices) was established in the long run of the 1970s and was dropped in 1989. In 1977 the Risoe Nationwide Laboratory which was initially established to analysis in nuclear energy fashioned its entrance to wind turbine R&D.
A measurement programme co-funded by the US division of power was carried out by the Risoe Nationwide Laboratory (Andersen, 1999). Risoe additionally draw on a convention on boundary layer meteorology and wind local weather research. The Technical College of Denmark continued the research of aerodynamics and wind tunnel experiments, in order that their analysis on wind local weather, mannequin legal guidelines, terrain roughness, and shelter results fashioned the scientific platform for Risoe? s work on the Danish and European Wind Atlas which was initiated within the late 1970s. Risoe Nationwide Laboratory additionally occupied the approval job for various kinds of wind generators (Andersen, 1999).
With a view to be sure that the federal government supported generators additionally had a sure high quality and security, laws on kind approval for wind generators was established. Right this moment greater than 100 scientists and engineers are working for the establishment which has an essential division in wind power with appreciable interactions with the wind power group worldwide. Risoe? s work on turbine security has been essential in making certain the reliability of recent wind generators (Krohn, 2002). On Might 4th 1978 the Affiliation of Wind Turbine House owners was fashioned, and the primary Wind turbine guild or cooperative was established in 1980. 6. three The Wind Power Cluster within the 1980s
The Gedser wind turbine itself was constructed and financed by the ability firm SEAS. Within the early 1980s Danish energy corporations took early curiosity in wind power and in massive wind generators and constructed two experimental machines, one pitch regulated and one stall regulated, of 630 kW every. However the price of power from the massive generators was so excessive that sequence manufacturing was not even envisaged (Krohn, 2002). Riisager’s and different producer’s success motivated some producers of agricultural equipment to enter within the rising turbine manufacturing sector which offered promising business prospects. Amongst these corporations have been Vestas, Nordtank, Bonus (now Siemens Wind Energy), Nordex, and later Micon (Krohn, 2002).
The Danish Wind Business Affiliation, a non revenue affiliation, whose goal is to advertise wind power at residence and overseas, was based in 1981. Producers quickly grew to become members of the affiliation so right this moment there are greater than 220 members throughout Denmark. The situation of receiving the 30% development subsidy from the federal government was that the turbine had been authorised by the brand new check station for small generators arrange by the Risoe Nationwide Laboratory. The Function of Risoe Nationwide Laboratory so modified from being that of a controlling entity to a extra technology-mediating unit. In 1982 the check station issued the primary mixed load paradigm, which established that each one wind turbine parts needed to be dimensioned for twice the load in comparison with the standard norm.
The results of this coverage was that the Danish wind generators gained the repute for being dependable and sturdy (DWIA, 2008). The Wind Power Division of Risoe Nationwide Laboratory grew to become worldwide identified for its experience with tight connections to the Technical College of Denmark and likewise more and more connections with Aalborg College (electrical energy points). Beneficial properties of productiveness due to the European Wind Atlas within the years 1980 – 1985 may very well be realised by higher sitting of wind generators. The Danish kind approval certification scheme has been a really dynamic device to foster higher design procedures in wind turbine manufacturing corporations.
It has additionally been essential in profitable the boldness traders worldwide (Krohn, 2002). Within the early 1980s the State of California started a programme of supporting wind power growth. Danish producers having the longest observe file had already developed a number of generations of successively bigger machines in small sequence. The California market expanded dramatically, permitting an infinite quantity of manufacturing of wind generators. The Danish producers provided 1000’s of generators to the USA from 1982. Bonus, Vestas and Nordtank all participated within the wind growth launched in California till the market got here to an abrupt halt in 1986. The issue was that producers had turn out to be depending on a single market.
When the California wind programme resulted in 1985-1986, a lot of the 20-odd producers went bankrupt as a result of they’d few different markets for his or her merchandise (Krohn, 2002). The financial collapse within the business induced an elimination race within the following years. All of the small producers disappeared or have been taken over by Vestas, Bonus, Nordtank, Micon and Nordex. Thus started a protracted haul for the remaining producers, who then tried to broaden their market base to incorporate a number of nations (DWIA, 2008). 6. four The Power Coverage of the Danish Authorities for the reason that 1980s/1990s In 1985 the Danish authorities determined that nuclear energy shouldn’t be a component of future power provide.
Beside the 30% subsidy of the development prices for wind generators which endured till 1989 the federal government started, for the reason that mid 1980s, to push an energetic agenda with the purpose to implement renewable and various power sources (Meyer, 2007). In a 15 yr plan for giant scale implementation of wind-generated electrical energy countrywide the federal government pronounced the nation’s objective of assembly 10 per cent of Danish electrical energy consumption by wind within the yr 2005, implying an put in base of 1,500 MW of put in wind capability (Sharman, 2005). Danish authorities had very extensive ranging powers for regulation of utilities. These laws took many kinds, together with power effectivity and demand-side administration measures.
Built-in Useful resource Planning was an integral a part of the process by means of which the ability corporations obtained permission to put in new producing capability. Different measures included value and accountancy controls. The federal government had ordered the utilities to put in 400 MW of wind energy on land to this point. The primary two orders of 100 MW every have been already issued in 1985 and 1990. The most recent onshore order for 200 MW to be accomplished earlier than the yr 2000 was issued in 1996. In 1998 a brand new order was issued for 750 MW of offshore wind energy. The Danish power plan “Power21” from 1996 arrange a goal of even 4000 MW of offshore wind energy in 2030 (Krohn1, 2002).
To keep away from disagreements between utilities and wind energy producers over circumstances for grid connections and tariffs, the Danish authorities launched in 1992 laws concerning the feed-in tariff, which was fastened at 85% of the utility manufacturing and distribution prices (Meyer, 2007). 6. 5 The Cluster of Trendy Wind Generators since 1990 Within the early 1990s Vestas, Bonus (now Siemens), Nordtank, Micon and Nordex represented the wind turbine producers within the Danish cluster. Most of them had a observe file of greater than 10 years. The dimensions of the wind generators grew enormously in a perpetual race to develop renewable power which was succesful to compete with the traditional applied sciences when it comes to electrical energy output and value. In the beginning of the 90s, the common wind turbine had a capability of 200-300 kW, which had grown to 1-2 MW within the late 90s.
Profitable home turbine producers grew to become world leaders within the wind turbine manufacturing (DWIA, 2008). A service sector to keep up and restore put in tools developed. The business left, after additional consolidation, two massive producers in Denmark, Siemens Wind Energy A/S (owned by German Siemens AG) and Vestas Wind Techniques A/S and a number of other companies that are concerned within the business and organised within the Danish Wind Business Affiliation. In 1991 the Vindeby offshore wind park opened and in 1995 the wind farm at Tunoe Knob, geared up by Bonus and Vestas. The offshore market performed a increasingly essential function for the cluster and 95% of the offshore put in generators are of Danish origin (DWIA, 2008).
In 2001 Danish wind turbine corporations had a market share of 50% of the world market (Krohn, 2002). The share of electrical energy offered by wind energy rose from much less then 5% in 1995 to virtually 20% in 2003. The entire put in base of wind energy was some 1,100 MW on the finish of 1997. This made Denmark to the third largest wind energy nation on the planet. All generators have been produced domestically. In 1997 there have been 10,000 folks employed within the wind energy sector, a quantity that grew as much as 23,500 in 2007. In 2006 the Danish Wind Business Affiliation created the Expertise Manufacturing unit to enhance the profession alternatives amongst engineering college students (DWIA, 2008).
Greater than 80% of the 6,300 wind generators in Denmark have been owned by power co-operatives, or particular person farmers. 150,000 Danish households owned wind generators or shares in wind co-operatives in 2002 (Krohn, 2002). 7. Description of the Wind Power Cluster Right this moment Denmark hosts among the world’s largest wind turbine producers. Vestas Wind Techniques, a really Danish firm is located in Denmark (Vestas). Moreover, German Siemens Wind Energy and Indian Suzlon have established their world head quarters within the nation (Siemens, Spend money on DK1). Additionally German Nordex (previously Danish) and Spanish Gamesa have established respectively workplaces and R centres in Denmark (Nordex, Gamesa).
These are huge world gamers; In 2008 Vestas counted for 19% of the world market, Gamesa for 11% and Nordex and Siemens 7% respectively (EcoSeed). Different smaller producers are Norwin A/S, Wincon A/S and Gaia Wind Power A/S. There’s a robust department of associations related with wind power and amongst them are the Danish Wind Business Affiliation (www. windpower. org), Danish Power Industries Affiliation and Danish Wind Turbine House owners’ Affiliation. In 2007, wind power in Denmark produced about 7,173 GWh. This corresponded to 19. 7% of home power provide or to the consumption of about 2. 03 million Danish households, in comparison with 16. 9% in 2006 and just one. 9% in 1990. In 2007, wind energy capability accounted for three,124 MW (i. . 24. 1% the entire electrical energy capability), 424 MW being offshore wind generators. In 1990 wind energy capability was 343 MW (Power Statistics, 2007). Projections by the Danish Wind Business Affiliation estimate a rise of the yearly instalment of recent capability of about 17% by 2011, reaching greater than 200,000 MW. So far as offshore generators are involved, 7,600 MW are anticipated to be put in by the identical yr (EREC). Wind turbine manufacturing, upkeep, set up and consultancy providers account for some 16,000 jobs in Denmark, whereas element provides and set up of those Danish generators at present create one other eight,000 jobs worldwide.
The worldwide job creation of Danish wind turbine corporations are considerably bigger than these figures point out: solely about 9 billion DKK (1. 2 billion EUR) is because of generators manufactured in Denmark. The remaining are manufactured in Germany, Spain, India, Italy, and the U. S. , i. e. in nations the place there’s a substantial residence market (Krohn, 2002). 7. 1 VESTAS: World’s no. 1 Turbine Producer As Vestas is the world chief on the worldwide marketplace for wind power and one of many key drivers of the Danish wind power cluster a brief description of the corporate will probably be given. Vestas was based in 1898 by H. S. Hansen, a blacksmith, in Denmark. He and his son manufactured metal home windows for industrial buildings.
In 1945, his son established the corporate VEstjysk-STalteknik A/S, whose identify was shortened to Vestas. In 1979, Vestas delivered the primary wind generators. Vestas have put in over 39,000 wind generators in 63 nations on 5 continents. In 2008, Vestas put in a brand new turbine each three hours worldwide, producing greater than 60 million MWh a yr. Vestas has developed from a pioneer within the business with a employees of round 60 folks in 1987 to a worldwide, hi-tech and market-leading firm using greater than 20,000 folks. Vestas reached revenues of EUR 6,035 million with operational margin of 11. 1% in 2008 and so they bought world market share of 19% (5,581 MW).
Vestas’ core enterprise contains the event, manufacture, sale and upkeep of wind generators. Their experience in fashionable power covers extra than simply wind generators. They concentrate on planning, set up, operation and upkeep. Their competencies cowl all the things from web site research to service and upkeep. Vestas is distinguished by a excessive diploma of vertical integration. On the similar time, manufacturing and sourcing are carried out as near the market as attainable. In 2008, Vestas opened the world’s largest analysis and growth centre for wind power in Aarhus (Denmark) which can home greater than 900 staff (Vestas). eight. Wind Power Cluster – Cluster Diamond
Now Porter’s Diamond mannequin will probably be used to analyse the aggressive strengths and weaknesses of the Danish wind power cluster. eight. 1 Issue Circumstances Issue circumstances essential to the wind power cluster are the pure useful resource in type of wind circumstances and the scientific base in addition to human capital inside the area of wind power. Denmark has comparatively modest to good common wind. Onshore wind sources are highest within the Western a part of the nation, and on the Jap islands with coastlines dealing with South or West. The nation has very massive offshore wind sources and enormous areas of sea territory with a shallow water depth of 5 to 15 m, the place sitting is most possible. These websites provide greater wind speeds (Krohn1, 2002).
The comparatively good wind circumstances have been a bonus up to now when the wind power cluster was rising and nonetheless operated primarily within the residence market. Because the operations have gone world the Danish wind circumstances should not so essential anymore. In stark distinction to Germany, Sweden, the USA, Canada, and the UK, publicly financed R initiatives performed a comparatively minor function in initiating the early growth of the Danish wind turbine business. The early stimulus got here within the type of funding grants, supporting market growth for small scale privately owned generators. Later, the Danish Authorities and the EU have financed a big variety of primary analysis initiatives, and given some assist to growth initiatives (Krohn, 2002).
One of many causes for Suzlon to ascertain its world headquarters in Denmark was precisely the specialised information the nation possesses. The chairman of Suzlon declared: “Denmark is world chief in know-how for wind-energy. That’s the reason our world head quarter will probably be right here. ” (Spend money on DK1). On the academic entrance, the colleges provide specialised wind engineer educations and the analysis centres provide numerous coaching programs focused particularly on the wind power business, for example the Technical College of Denmark (DTU) – Wind Grasp Schooling; Aalborg College – Wind Grasp. Engineering Faculty of Aarhus (IHA) has developed a specialisation in wind turbine development with the principle deal with mechanical parts (DWIA, 2008).
Risoe Wind Power Division, College of Aalborg and College of Aarhus have collectively established a information centre – Danish College Wind Power Coaching (DUWET) which affords a analysis based mostly supplementary training for workers within the wind business. DUWET collects wind power information and analysis and affords programs and specialist coaching for anybody within the business. A consortium consisting of the analysis centres Risoe Nationwide Laboratory, Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI), The Technical College of Denmark (DTU), and Aalborg College type a nationwide energy centre inside wind power analysis and thus a significant a part of the wind power cluster. Due to this fact, the scientific base for the wind power cluster is very developed and offers the cluster with extremely expert labour. eight. 2 Demand Circumstances
Denmark is considerably distinctive amongst wind turbine markets, for the reason that market actually grew out of a well-liked curiosity in different producing applied sciences, partly in opposition to the usage of nuclear energy, partly because of the power provide disaster within the late 1970s, when oil costs skyrocketed resulting from OPEC motion and political and army unrest within the Center East. The well-organised Danish wind turbine house owners have been an important driving power for debugging and bettering Danish wind know-how in its earlier years (Krohn, 2002). Personal people, both as members of wind power co-operatives, or as house owners of a wind turbine (farmers) account for greater than 80% of the 5024 wind generators in Denmark (DWIA, 2009). This quantity reveals the robust curiosity of Danes in wind power and their assist for constructing new wind farms.
The Danish residence market is what created the trendy Danish wind business initially, and gave it the testing floor to kind out each wind know-how and manufacturing know-how. The openness and curiosity of the Danish customers have positively supported the demand within the early years of the cluster and pushed its growth. Right this moment few wind generators are arrange in Denmark in comparison with the world market and the native demand has misplaced a few of its significance. eight. three Context for Agency Technique, Construction and Rivalry Danish power coverage has not directly performed an essential function in fostering the business success of the Danish wind business. The Danish power coverage for renewable power has been a mannequin for a lot of markets on the planet.
In nations as shut as Germany, France or Spain and as distant as China or Argentina Danish assist schemes for renewable power have been copied and/or tailored to native circumstances. Danish long-term power planning comparable to “Power 21” has been broadly quoted all through the world. One of many primary the reason why wind power has such a outstanding place in Danish power planning is the necessity to cut back greenhouse gasoline emissions. In accordance with the Kyoto Protocol Denmark has to scale back emissions of greenhouse gases by 21% in relation to 1990. The targets apply from 2008 to 2012 (COP15). Multiple third of that concentrate on is being met utilizing wind power to interchange coal-fired energy era (Krohn3, 2002). Thus, the Danish insurance policies give good circumstances for renewable power corporations.
Denmark has launched feed-in tariffs for renewable power vegetation related previous to 21 April 2004. Renewable power vegetation obtain the spot market value plus a subsidy to supply a assured value of eight. 1 eurocents/kWh, relevant for 20 years from date of connection. Renewable power services related after 21 April 2004 are getting manufacturing incentives. Wind vegetation obtain the spot market value plus a 1. three eurocents/kWh manufacturing incentive which will probably be relevant for 20 years from the date of connection. Furthermore, further subsidies of 1. 6 eurocents/kWh are offered for brand spanking new services that substitute decommissioned wind generators 450 kW and smaller (Porter, 2006).
The Power Settlement of 21 February 2008 accommodates an goal of accelerating the proportion of renewable power to 20% of the gross power consumption by 2011. Within the projection, the renewable power share in 2011 is 20. 5% (Power Statistics 2007). Enchancment of incentives to encourage the set up of wind generators is among the many initiatives which can comply with up the political accord of 21 February 2008. The brand new act contains the framework for total native authorities planning for wind generators and a assure fund of DKK 10 million to subsidise the funding of native wind turbine guild preliminary investigations and many others. and a mannequin for native co-ownership.
In reference to onshore wind turbine planning, the federal government will enter into an settlement with the Nationwide Affiliation of Native Authorities in Denmark on municipal planning for 75 MW every in 2010 and in 2011. As well as, work is being executed on establishing a cost scheme which can cowl neighbours to onshore wind generators for losses in property values because of wind turbine installations. The continued growth of offshore wind turbine services will make an essential contribution to attaining renewable power targets. The work of providing two offshore wind turbine farms of 200 MW every or presumably one farm of 400 MW began in 2008 with a view to commissioning in 2012.
As well as, work began on the updating of the offshore wind turbine motion plan, which examines the placement of recent farms, the attainable adjustment of the tender mannequin, issues of earlier constructing maturity and open doorways with cost as onshore generators. Subsidies for brand spanking new wind generators will probably be elevated to 25 oere/kWh for 22,000 peak load hours and a couple of. three oere/kWh in balancing prices and zero. four oere/kWh for the “inexperienced fund” (Power Coverage Assertion, 2008). Rivalry can hardly be defined on a neighborhood stage anymore because the wind turbine producers have gone world and are working everywhere in the world right this moment. Within the earlier stage of the cluster, rivalry on the Danish market was tense – leading to many take-overs and mergers and ending with one single true Danish firm, Vestas. eight. four Associated and Supporting Industries
The background of the Danish turbine producers was completely different from wind energy corporations within the U. S. , Sweden, or Germany. Names like Boeing, Lockheed, Westinghouse, MBB, and Siemens point out a powerful background in plane and generator manufacturing. Curiously, nonetheless, virtually all of right this moment’s remaining bigger wind turbine producers have a equipment manufacturing background fairly than an plane background. Though fashionable wind turbine know-how resembles helicopter know-how, the working necessities are very completely different (Krohn, 2002). Quite a few industrial enterprises have developed essential companies as suppliers of main parts for wind generators.
LM Glasfiber A/S is the world’s largest producer of fibre glass rotor blades for wind generators, with an employment of greater than 1,000 folks. Danish producers of digital wind turbine controllers likewise have a really massive market share worldwide. DanControl Engineering A/S, Mita Teknik A/S and DWC A/S produce controller and communication methods. Svendborg Brakes A/S is a number one vendor of mechanical braking methods. Additionally Danish subsidiaries of enormous worldwide industries comparable to Siemens, ABB, SKF, FAG, and many others. have developed companies within the wind energy business (Danish Power Authority, 2002). Different industrial service enterprises have created essential companies in servicing the wind energy business.
For instance corporations are specialised in offering cranes for installations of wind generators; offering transport of generators, towers and blades domestically and for export. Service and upkeep of the greater than 6000 wind generators in Denmark is carried out by the producers’ personal service departments. But in addition a handful of impartial service corporations have been established for example DWP Molleservice A/S and DanService A/S. Furthermore, there are additionally specialised service suppliers like banks (Ringkoebing Financial institution has specialised in financing wind energy initiatives), insurance coverage corporations, engineering and administration consultancies (Andersen, 2003). The most important Danish consultancies in wind power utilisation are BTM
Seek the advice of Aps, E Knowledge, Tech-wise A/S, SEAS Wind Power Centre, WEA ApS and Tripod ApS (Danish Power Authority, 2002). Determine three: Cluster Diamond [pic] Supply: Group Evaluation 9. Strategic Points Dealing with Denmark and the Wind Power Cluster Denmark is in the meanwhile the main centre inside the area of wind energy. Nonetheless through the latest years a big change in know-how and markets has taken place. Denmark is confronted with the problem to keep up its main place regardless of rising competitors from companies working in decrease value nations, particularly China. The wind power cluster and the political system should assume a proactive place in direction of this transformation to make sure that Denmark will strengthen its place as distinctive worth creator.
Denmark should present the best wind energy that ensures its greatest integration within the amassed power system, in order that Denmark sooner or later can nonetheless present wind energy know-how to power methods with a big proportion of wind energy. The commercial surroundings is constructed on a basis which consists of a big effort in analysis and training in addition to revolutionary growth centered on environmentally sustainability. This area of wind energy is influenced by cooperation and knowledge-sharing to seek out technological growth tracks. However this basis has been weakened concerning the cooperation inside the business, new technological tracks inside the business and training and recruitment.
The Danish research-environment has a number one place inside a lot of areas, however nice challenges consistent with the speedy growth of worldwide markets put quite a lot of strain of the Danish information centre to carry on the proficient researchers and college students. With a view to keep the distinctive Danish place, a unprecedented effort should be put in. The strategic points are specializing in each, growth of the wind energy business by bettering wind generators and effectiveness of wind energy, and the development of the information centre concerning analysis and training. As innovation and demonstration specializing in the testing of windmills has beforehand been one-dimensional there are strategic points to talked about, that suggest an amassed technique for esting and demonstration of parts and turbine components, wind generators and wind farms and wind energy vegetation within the power system, in order that the services cowl the entire worth chain. Creating one technique for the entire worth chain with sub-strategies for every of the three dimensions would strengthen the mixing and the competitiveness of the wind energy business. One other essential subject regards the analysis effort. The long-term college analysis and training ought to be strengthened by prioritisation of basic or generic applied sciences which can be a part of the event of wind generators and energy vegetation. This additionally considers the entire worth chain, so from turbine half till integration of the wind energy into the electrical energy provide system (e. g. urbine design, blades, wind hundreds and sitting, integration into electrical energy provide system and offshore know-how). Together with a roadmap and measurable standards for each space, this technique may very well be developed by utilizing the present analysis surroundings as a foundation and construct on the efforts from earlier analysis. Particularly offshore know-how analysis ought to be strengthened and framework circumstances for cooperation between analysis establishments and business. This may very well be offered by means of widespread tips for the frames of cooperation. Following these suggestions, Denmark will probably be ready to face the present challenges. 10. Coverage suggestions for the suitable constituencies Nationwide and regional authorities
As Denmark faces now severe challenges when it comes to the event of their cluster construction, it’s important that respective authorities undertake important steps with a purpose to put together the surroundings for sustainable development. Initially, it’s price mentioning that authorities should actively take part in funding of regional development environments. In addition to this, they need to encourage and assist the emergence of applicable initiatives, particularly in these areas, the place different constituencies have already been mobilized. Clusters in Denmark have confirmed to be a ample and efficient device in innovation coverage and subsequently it’s essential to maintain and enhance their presence.
Subsequent, authorities should deal with constructing sound financial framework, with a purpose to create investment-friendly surroundings. As influx of capital is inextricably related with Denmark clustering technique, it’s obligatory to keep up an incentive-oriented construction of attracting new traders. That step can be essential in case the authorities are unable to additional finance sure initiatives. Due to this fact, respective duties should be shifted to personal sector. Firms and commerce associations With the emergence of clusters, corporations are beginning to play more and more extra essential function. They need to – together with commerce associations – have the ability to clearly formulate their wants and have the ability to affect the authorities to implement them.
In addition to this, it turns into their duty to focus extra on investments in innovation. That’s the reason it’s obligatory for respective corporations and supporting associations to work collectively in creation of competence and information facilities. Universities So far as educational involvement is anxious, universities specializing in sure arts ought to play a supportive function in growth of clusters. It has confirmed to work up to now, as Copenhagen Enterprise Faculty offered corporations with area analysis and required theoretical frameworks. Due to this fact, the ties between educational and enterprise world should be tightened, in order to attain a 360-degree cooperation of all of the constituencies concerned in initiatives. 11.
Conclusion On this paper I analysed Denmark and its wind power cluster. Denmark has a really secure and stable financial system, but in addition faces some severe challenges in rising productiveness development and educating and attracting human capital. Denmark’s heavy tax burden could be a hindrance. The wind power cluster is by the top of its development stage in its life cycle and now must innovate to continue to grow. As focus within the cluster has moved from manufacturing to R the cluster face the problem of making certain the most effective circumstances for the scientific base to maintain the wind corporations within the nation. A strategic and coordinated effort is required. Bibliography Agri-food Commerce Service: www. sea. agr. gc. ca/eur/4586-eng. htm (07. 12. 09) • Andersen, P. D. (1999) Ph. D. Evaluate of Historic and Trendy Utilization of Wind Energy, Division Publication, Risoe Wind Power Division • Andersen, P. D. (2003) Sources of expertise in wind power know-how, Ph. D. , January 2003 http://www. iset. uni-kassel. de/extool/Andersen-Sources_of_Experience. pdf (12. 01. 10) • CBS: http://uk. cbs. dk/for_companies (10. 01. 10) • COP15: http://en. cop15. dk/ (12. 01. 10) • Cluster Observatory: Nation Report: Denmark (2007) http://www. clusterobservatory. eu/add/Policy_Report_Denmark_20080116. pdf (09. 01. zero) • Danish Power Authority (2002) Wind Power in Denmark Standing 2001 http://193. 88. 185. 141/Graphics/Publikationer/Forsyning_UK/Wind_Energy_in_Denmark170402. pdf (12. 01. 10) • Danish Exporters: http://www. danishexporters. dk/scripts/danishexporters/export. asp (11. 01. 10) • Dess, et al. (2004) Strategic Administration: Creating Aggressive Benefits, McGraw Hill Skilled • DI: http://di. dk/English/AboutDI/Pages/confederation. aspx (10. 01. 10) • Doing Enterprise 2010 by the World Financial institution • DTU: http://www. enterprise. dtu. dk/Analysis. aspx (10. 01. 10) • DWIA (2008) Denmark – Wind Energy Hub, Danish Business Affiliation http://www. windpower. org/obtain/378/profilbrochure_2008. pdf (12. 01. zero) • DWIA (2009) Information on manufacturing, quantity and capability, Danish Wind Business Affiliation • DWIA1 (2009) Previous and current – profitable developments adopted by stalemate, Danish Wind Business Affiliation • EcoSeed: http://www. ecoseed. org/en/general-green-news/green-business-news/green-business-news/833-global-market-share-in-wind-turbine-manufacturers-unveiled (12. 01. 10) • Power Coverage Assertion (2008) The report of the minister of local weather and power pursuant to the Danish Act on Power Coverage Measures • Power Statistics 2007, Danish Power Company • EREC: Renewable Power Coverage Evaluate Denmark • Gamesa: http://www. gamesacorp. com/en/where-are-we/contacts-by-countries/wind-turbines-manufacture (12. 01. zero) • Globalisering, 2006: Authorities Technique for Denmark within the International Economic system, June 2006 http://www. globalisering. dk/multimedia/Globalisering. pdf (10. 01. 10) • Guardian, 2010: Denmark trims key price to 1. 15 pct to curb crown (07. 01. 10) http://www. guardian. co. uk/enterprise/feedarticle/8888123 (10. 01. 10) • IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook (2009) • Index Mundi report on Danish Economic system (2009) • Innovation Lab: http://www. innovationlab. dk/en/node/723 (10. 01. 10) • Investindk: http://www. investindk. dk/visArtikel. asp? artikelID=9663 (10. 01. 10) • Spend money on DK1: http://www. investindk. com/visCase. asp? artikelID=13171 (12. 01. 10) • ITU: http://www1. itu. ok/sw69583. asp (10. 01. 10) • Jensen, C. S. (2008) Employment Relations in Denmark – Explaining Flexicurity, paper offered on the 103rd American Sociological Affiliation Congress in Boston • Krohn, S. (2002) Danish Wind Generators: An Industrial Success Story, Danish Wind Business Affiliation http://guidedtour. windpower. org/media(483,1033)/Danish_Wind_Turbine_Industry,_an_industrial_succes_story. pdf (12. 01. 10) • Krohn1, S. (2002) The Wind Turbine Market in Denmark, Danish Wind Business Affiliation • Krohn2, S. (2002) Wind Power Coverage in Denmark: 25 Years of Success – What Now? Danish Wind Business Affiliation • Krohn3, S. 2002) Wind Power Coverage in Denmark Standing 2002, Danish Wind Business Affiliation • Meyer, N. I. (2007) Studying from Wind Power Coverage within the EU: Classes from Denmark, Sweden and Spain, European Atmosphere, 17, 5, pp. 347-362 • Ministry of International Affairs of Denmark: Factsheet Denmark http://www. denmark. dk/NR/rdonlyres/916BAEE6-AFB8-4720-B118-03366AB1154A/zero/DenmarkOverview. pdf (12. 01. 10) • Nordex: http://www. nordex-online. com/en/company-career/addresses-international. html (12. 01. 10) • Nordic Innovation: Clustering in Denmark and Danish Cluster Coverage (2004) http://www. nordicinnovation. internet/_img/denmark_backgrounder. pdf (09. 01. 10) • OECD (2009) OECD Financial Surveys: Denmark, quantity 2009/19,
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