ASSIGNMENT 2: Oral presentation You will be assigned an organ or structure associated with content covered in Weeks 1-5 of semester by the end of Week 2. Your task is to make a 5-minute video presentation (with audio, written text, and pictures/diagrams) answering the question “Can I live without a [insert your topic here]?” Further information about the video presentation, including specific questions you must address, instructions for submission and the marking guide, will be provided on LEO. Due date: Week 7 of semester; by 4pm Monday 5 September Weighting: 25%
Length and/or format: Five-minute long, recorded oral presentation. Presentations exceeding 5 minutes and 30 seconds in length will not be listened to past this point, nor will marks be awarded past 5:30 minutes. Your accompanying script must also be uploaded to a separate Turnitin drop box. Purpose: The oral presentation will allow you to demonstrate your understanding of the structure and function of a specific organ or structure in relation to normal function of the human body. Learning outcomes assessed: 1,2,3
How to submit:
Online via LEO. There are four steps: (1) create your video, (2) upload your video to your Echo360 library, (3) submit your Echo360 video to the LEO assignment drop box and (4) upload
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Return of assignment:
your script to the Turnitin drop box. More detailed instructions are provided on LEO. It is vital you check your submission. If your marker contacts you because your submission cannot be viewed, you will have 24 hours to resubmit correctly, and a 50% penalty will be applied. If you do not correctly submit to the LEO assignment drop box, your work cannot be viewed by your marker, and you will receive a mark of zero. Marks and feedback will be available via LEO within three weeks of submission.
Assessment criteria: An exemplar and marking guide will be available on LEO. The marking guide is also available in Appendix 1.
Adrenal Glands

Anatomy of Adrenal Gland
 An adrenal gland is composed of two parts.
 The adrenal cortex is the outer region.
 The adrenal cortex is the largest part of the organ.
 It has two distinct tissues including outer cortex and the inner medulla (Shahabi et al., 2018).
 They can become malignant and benign that can cause health problems.
 It has three zones including zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata and zona reticularis (Shahabi et al., 2018).
 Adrenal glands produce hormones in response to signals.
Physiology
 Adrenal gland function to generate hormones for regulating metabolism.
 It regulates blood pressure and responds to stress.
 The gland responds to stress with fight-or-flight reaction (Nuzzi & Caselgrandi, 2022).
 It produces hormones in response to pituitary gland in the brain.
 It produces essential hormones including cortisol, aldosterone and adrenaline (Martin-Grace et al., 2020).
 The hormones are essential to the function of the body.
 The two parts involved in the functions include cortex and the medulla.
Can I Live Without?
 It is impossible to live without an adrenal gland.
 Individuals whose adrenal glands are removed should medication for life,
 The role of the medication is to provide the hormones to the body.
 An individual without the glands or hormones will suffer from Addison’s disease (Dutt et al., 2021).
 Malfunctioning adrenal gland is a rare disease.
 It occurs among 35 to 120 people in every one million people.
 An individual can live with one adrenal gland.
Future Profession
 Nurses encounter the gland during diagnosis.
 Adrenal gland tumor diagnosis requires CT scan of the gland.
 Educating patients on adrenal glands and how to eat healthy food (Saric-Bosanac et al., 2020).
 Diagnosing patients with adrenal problems.
 The problems include severe belly (abdominal) pain, weaknesses, and general low blood pressure.
 ACTH stimulation test to test adrenal insufficiency.
 Assessing problems with adrenal gland including skin problems and high blood pressure.
References
 Shahabi, S., Taji, I. H., Hoseinnezhaddarzi, M., Mousavi, F., Shirchi, S., Nazari, A., … & Pourabdolhossein, F. (2018). Exposure to cell phone radiofrequency changes corticotrophin hormone levels and histology of the brain and adrenal glands in male Wistar rat. Iranian journal of basic medical sciences, 21(12), 1269.
 Nuzzi, R., & Caselgrandi, P. (2022). Sex Hormones and Their Effects on Ocular Disorders and Pathophysiology: Current Aspects and Our Experience. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(6), 3269.
 Dutt, M., Wehrle, C. J., & Jialal, I. (2021). Physiology, adrenal gland. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.
 Saric-Bosanac, S., Clark, A. K., Sivamani, R. K., & Shi, V. Y. (2020). The role of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-like axis in inflammatory pilosebaceous disorders. Dermatology online journal, 26(2).
 Martin-Grace, J., Dineen, R., Sherlock, M., & Thompson, C. J. (2020). Adrenal insufficiency: Physiology, clinical presentation and diagnostic challenges. Clinica chimica acta, 505, 78-91.

Adrenal glands play a vital role in the human body by producing essential hormones. Located above the kidneys, these small triangular-shaped glands help regulate important body functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, stress response and immune function. This article provides an overview of adrenal gland anatomy, physiology and the implications of living without a functioning adrenal gland. Recent research highlights the critical nature of these endocrine organs and how medical professionals can better support patients with adrenal disorders.
Anatomy and Structure

Each adrenal gland has an outer cortex and inner medulla (Martin-Grace et al., 2020). The cortex is the largest part and can be further divided into three zones – zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata and zona reticularis – based on the type of cells and hormones produced (Shahabi et al., 2018). The medulla lies at the core and contains chromaffin cells that synthesize epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Together, these distinct tissues allow the adrenals to regulate various physiological processes in response to signals from the hypothalamus and pituitary glands (Nuzzi & Caselgrandi, 2022).
While the average size of an adrenal gland is only about 1.5 centimeters long and 0.8 centimeters wide, their role in homeostasis makes them critically important organs (Dutt et al., 2021). Any dysfunction or removal can significantly impact health and quality of life if not properly managed.
Physiology and Hormone Production
Under normal conditions, the hypothalamus and pituitary glands stimulate the adrenals to secrete hormones on demand (Martin-Grace et al., 2020). In the cortex, the zona glomerulosa releases aldosterone to regulate sodium and potassium levels in the blood and kidneys. The zona fasciculata synthesizes cortisol, which influences carbohydrate and protein metabolism, immune function and the body’s response to stress, illness and injury. The zona reticularis generates small amounts of sex hormones like androgens and estrogens.
In the medulla, chromaffin cells secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine in response to stress (Nuzzi & Caselgrandi, 2022). Commonly called adrenaline and noradrenaline, these catecholamines trigger the famous “fight or flight” reaction by increasing heart rate, redirecting blood flow and boosting energy levels. Together, adrenal hormones maintain homeostasis during rest and prepare the body to respond quickly to threats or demands.
Consequences of Adrenal Insufficiency

Without functioning adrenal glands or adequate hormone replacement, an individual can develop a condition called adrenal insufficiency or Addison’s disease (Dutt et al., 2021). Symptoms range from fatigue, weight loss, low blood pressure to gastrointestinal issues depending on the severity. Left untreated, adrenal crisis may occur during periods of stress due to low cortisol and aldosterone levels.
While rare, affecting only 35 to 120 people per million, adrenal insufficiency can develop from autoimmune disease, infections, hemorrhage, or tumors (Dutt et al., 2021). It requires lifelong hormone supplementation, careful monitoring by an endocrinologist and education on managing stress. Patients must also adjust diets and activity during illness to prevent adrenal crisis. Though challenging, most can live healthy lives with proper medical management of their condition.
Future of Adrenal Healthcare
As understanding of adrenal disorders grows, healthcare approaches continue improving as well. Nurses play an important role in early diagnosis through education on common signs and symptoms (Saric-Bosanac et al., 2020). They can screen for adrenal tumors using imaging tests like CT scans and guide treatment plans.
Medical professionals also focus on lifestyle modifications and integrated care. A healthy, balanced diet tailored to individual needs supports adrenal and overall endocrine function (Saric-Bosanac et al., 2020). Coordinating treatment between endocrinologists, surgeons, dietitians and mental health practitioners enhances quality of life. Telehealth further increases access to specialized care in remote areas.
Conclusion
In summary, adrenal glands are small but essential endocrine organs. Located atop the kidneys, they produce hormones vital to metabolism, stress response, blood pressure and immune function. While rare, adrenal disorders disrupt homeostasis and require careful medical management. Through multidisciplinary care, improved diagnostics and lifestyle support, patients can live fulfilling lives despite facing challenges associated with adrenal insufficiency. Further research also aims to discover new treatment approaches that minimize disease burden. Overall, maintaining adrenal health remains important for whole-body wellness.
References
Dutt, M., Wehrle, C. J., & Jialal, I. (2021). Physiology, adrenal gland. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559164/
Martin-Grace, J., Dineen, R., Sherlock, M., & Thompson, C. J. (2020). Adrenal insufficiency: Physiology, clinical presentation and diagnostic challenges. Clinica chimica acta, 505, 78-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.03.012
Nuzzi, R., & Caselgrandi, P. (2022). Sex Hormones and Their Effects on Ocular Disorders and Pathophysiology: Current Aspects and Our Experience. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(6), 3269. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063269
Saric-Bosanac, S., Clark, A. K., Sivamani, R. K., & Shi, V. Y. (2020). The role of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-like axis in inflammatory pilosebaceous disorders. Dermatology online journal, 26(2). https://doi.org/10.5070/D4262054276
Shahabi, S., Taji, I. H., Hoseinnezhaddarzi, M., Mousavi, F., Shirchi, S., Nazari, A., … & Pourabdolhossein, F. (2018). Exposure to cell phone radiofrequency changes corticotrophin hormone levels and histology of the brain and adrenal glands in male Wistar rat. Iranian journal of basic medical sciences, 21(12), 1269. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329552/

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