Diagnosing Neurological Disorders

Diagnosing Neurological Disorders
A 50-year-old African-American male presents to the clinic with complaints of dizziness, left arm weakness, and fatigue. The medical history shows she has diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension under poor control. The physical examination shows the possibility of dysarthria, but the patient is responsive to commands. He has mild weakness on the left face and left-sided homonymous hemianopsia. However, the patient does not experience ptosis or nystagmus or uvula deviation.
Differential Diagnosis
Ischemic Stroke
A stroke occurs when the brain cells are damaged, or the brain’s blood vessels are blocked or raptured (Sajedi et al., 2017). Ischemic stroke occurs due to blockage of the blood vessels. Some of the common symptoms include facial droop, dysarthria and poor vision (Menet et al., 2018). Ischemic stroke is one of the most likely conditions the patient is suffering from.
Hemorrhage Stroke
It occurs when the blood vessels in the brain burst. One of the major causes is uncontrolled hypertension (Patel & McMullen, 2018). Some of the symptoms include severe headache, vomiting, and high blood pressure.
Subdural Hemorrhage
Subdural hemorrhage is bleeding that occurs outside the brain due to severe head injury. Some of the symptoms include vomiting, blurred vision, coma, headache and confusion (Patel & McMullen, 2018).
The most likely condition among the three is ischemic stroke since it presents symptoms similar to what the patient is suffering from (Menet et al., 2018). Hyperperidemia, which is under poor control, can increase the risk of blood clots that can block blood flow in the brain.
The best treatment is intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. The purpose is to break down the clots and prevent brain damage (Menet et al., 2018). It is essential to take medication to control diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Keeping all the conditions under control will prevent adverse outcomes in the future.

Menet, R., Bernard, M., & ElAli, A. (2018). Hyperlipidemia in stroke pathobiology and therapy: Insights and perspectives. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, 488.
Patel, R. A., & McMullen, P. W. (2017). Neuroprotection in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 59(6), 542-548.
Sajedi, P. I., Gonzalez, J. N., Cronin, C. A., Kouo, T., Steven, A., Zhuo, J., … & Raghavan, P. (2017). Carotid bulb webs as a cause of “cryptogenic” ischemic stroke. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 38(7), 1399-1404.

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