Emerging Technologies for Smarter Ports: The Impact of Automation and AI on Operations and Safety in Indian Ports
1. Introduction
This article titled “Emerging technologies for smarter ports: The impact of automation and AI on operations and safety in Indian ports.” The international trade has undergone a radical transformation with respect to innovative ideas and sail in the ship has been an important mode of transportation but the demand for quality and capacity has been increasing. Ports have been playing a critical role in order to answer the growing needs. In the early days, ports were seen as a simple facility for movement of cargo from land to sea and vice versa. But present-day ports are far more complex and serve as logistic nodes in supply chains using different modes of transportation. The competition has increased massively due to an increase in globalization and liberalization; there is always a search for a better and faster way to perform a function. Ports have been incorporating various technologies and methods in order to gain a competitive edge. The shipping industry across the globe is facing a crisis, with diminishing transportation capacity, reduced profitability, and increased safety and security concerns. In the epoch of information technology, automation technology, and artificial intelligence, it’s necessary to explore the impact of these technologies on the port industry and what the future holds for us. A growing concern for environmental safety around the globe has triggered research into the development of clean technologies and alternative fuel resources to power the shipping industry. With the identification of potential problems and a vision of an enhanced future, the Indian port sector has undertaken the project entitled “Technology Vision 2010” to introduce the latest technology into the port sector. The aforementioned project will help us evaluate the impact of automation and artificial intelligence technologies, a precursor to clean technologies, on the ports of today in the international scenario and ports of the future. This can be further evaluated when new developments are executed and compared to the present scenario at a later stage in time. Considering the aforementioned facts and the high relevance of ports in today’s world, the above-titled project takes the form of a study to evaluate the said technologies on ports, their impact on port operations and safety, and what can be expected in the future, with the primary focus on Indian ports. In order to achieve the aforementioned aims, it’s important to understand what these technologies are and their relevance to the port industry. This being an extensive field of study, the following is a humble attempt to conduct a preliminary study into the subject considering the constraints of time and resources. This shall form the basis for a much elaborate study at a later time and date with in-depth analysis and comparison based on primary data obtained from the field.
1.1 Background
Advanced technologies can also include new information systems, software, and using an electronic medium to communicate between customers, suppliers and the various modes of transport. An example in relation to an information system, could be a shipping schedule implemented in a website in comparison to the traditional telephone or fax messaging. For a phase 1 basic implementation, the schedule might just be made available for viewing. However in time to come, this schedule will be updated close to real-time basis, and would connect right to the customers and the port users. This will save quite a bit of time from the traditional method of answering phone calls.
Port automation is the process of utilizing advanced technology to improve efficiency of the port. At present, the most common medium of automating ports involves replacing the original equipment with new modern equipment. Automatic Stacking Cranes (ASC) have been tested and implemented all around the world as a replacement to the Rubber-Tyred Gantry Cranes (RTGs). The design from one to the other varies however the main aim in mind is to have an automated system. The cranes will be used to stack containers together as well as transporting them from the loading/unloading quay. This type of technology will help to increase the productivity compared to the original method.
Indian ports are extremely vital for sustaining international trade in India. Approximately 95% by volume and 77% by value of exports and imports from India are done through maritime transport. India has 12 major ports and about 200 non-major ports. The shipping industry in India has witnessed an increasing pace of growth, with an average traffic growth rate of 8.2%. It is expected that the capacity of the major ports will increase to around 3200 million tonnes by 2020 to cater to the traffic demand. The traffic at these ports has led to problems such as port congestion and berth productivity. To increase the efficiency and the capacity to cater to the traffic, many Indian ports are turning towards automation and implementing advanced technologies.
1.2 Objectives
The aim of the project is to amalgamate thorough research, extensive interviews, and direct observation to build an authentic in-depth understanding of the potential impact of emerging technologies on the current situation in Indian port operations and safety. The project will investigate the current status of technology adoption within Indian ports to identify the extent to which emerging technologies such as automation and AI could provide potential improvements. As well as seeking to discover if these emerging technologies are a viable solution, real benefits would deliver real benefits on the ground situation within Indian ports, this project will investigate to identify different perceptions of what constitutes ‘improvement’ within the realms of operations and safety in Indian ports. By doing a gap analysis to compare the current situation with the ideal situation, the project will seek to identify if and where emerging technologies can provide improvements and/or solutions to the current problems. This will provide a clear understanding of the potential areas where emerging technologies could be applied. Based on the identified potential areas, the project will investigate the different emerging technologies in isolation to build an understanding of their capabilities, limitations, and requirements to implement. Finally, the project will investigate the implications – direct and indirect, intended and unintended, positive and negative – that technology adoption would have on Indian port operations and safety. The learning from this research will provide invaluable insights and knowledge to draw implications about technology adoption and make informed recommendations to various port stakeholders on strategies for technology adoption and R&D investment for future improvements in port operations and safety in India.
1.3 Significance of the Study
This study highlights the significance of employing artificial intelligence and automation at Indian ports, its impact and consequences on the labour market. This study identifies the impact on the existing labour force, future workforce, and jobs that are vulnerable to automation. Analysing the future effects on the existing workforce involves investigating and evaluating the skills that are most likely to be replaced by machines and automation. These skills will then be equated with the port industry to identify the best possible types of jobs that may be available for those who lose their jobs due to automation. To understand the vulnerability of certain types of jobs, a skills-based model uses O*Net data to assess the amount of time workers spend on various tasks within each occupation to predict the potential for automation in each occupation. Participants in the labour market affected by automation will make employment decisions based on the value of their human capital in the face of changing job prospects. This is affected by port workers’ revealed preference in the job market and the costs and benefits of job displacement and retraining in terms of wages, and to identify, measure, and compare the long-term economic effects on workers who have had to abandon their careers in the port industry. This study will also identify the best possible types of jobs available for those who lose their jobs due to automation. To do so, the study will investigate and evaluate the skills that are most likely to be replaced by machines or automation. Using this information, the skills will then be equated with the port industry to identify the best possible types of jobs for the workers who face job displacement and the workers currently active in the industry. By doing so, a pathway can be created to transition workers who are at risk of job displacement into a similar type of job with the most future potential for automation. Due to the uncertainty within the labour market, this could be for a job still within the port industry.
2. Automation in Indian Ports
Indian ports, throughput is 2-3 container moves per crane per hour, which renders the data imperfect. Data is the lifeblood of IoT. And unless the data available is perfect, it would not enable perfect decision making or enhance the efficiency. A unique cost effective solution from Kunaq could help. QTSP (Quick Twist Secure Parker) is a power free twistlock which can facilitate conversion of any container into a secure storage unit for dry or reefer cargo. This will enable efficient movement of import and export containers from the port, as containers need not be sorted for cargo between dry and reefer prior to movement. The patented design of QTSP also ensures zero twistlock related accidents on quay, as the lock cannot be removed on an uneven surface. This initiative is what Nityanand calls ‘smart move’, which works on making the number of moves to and fro from the stack at the quay as low as possible and ‘zero drop’, which focuses on ensuring that whenever a yard crane moves to retrieve a container it does it with the aim to load it on a truck destined out of the port. QTSP can also be integrated with GPS technology to provide real time data on location of the container, enabling more trackable and hence secure cargo movement. A most significant IoT initiative by TIL, which directly addresses the issue of damaged containers and hence cargo is the TG50 and TG100 container pick up spreaders. By equipping these spreaders with a load cell, TIL can provide the port and hence the shipping line with data on the force used to lift a container off the ground and whether it conforms to the industry normal of 5MT. With the data available on a web tool, the shipping line can easily stop the ongoing operation if the desired result is not achieved, as it knows that any over or under weight movement will be costly and risky. In the long run, this will also provide the shipping lines with data on Tandem and Triple lifts, which have always been quite hazardous for terminal operations. On the software front, CEPL has a designed an algorithm to automate the vehicle dispatch system at the port. It uses an offline simulation model to generate a real time schedule for movement t of each container from the vessel to the stack and from the stack to the vehicle. The solution has shown an increase in resource utilization, on time delivery of cargo and a decrease in vehicle traffic at the port. Data analysis has also indicated that the model uses the most cost efficient means to deliver the cargo.
2.1 Overview of Automation Technologies
The driving force behind the recent push in port automation and the rise of intelligent technologies, in recent years, has been the need for ports and terminals to both increase and improve their throughput and efficiency. Traditionally, ports have been seen as the ‘weak link’ in the transport chain. The use of automation technologies such as AGVs, automated cranes, and intelligent cargo handling systems will allow ports and terminals to greatly increase their productivity and vessel turnaround time. This increase in efficiency is highly sought after by shipping lines seeking to reduce their vessel operating costs by minimizing time in port. Emerging technologies have the capacity to change the landscape of the logistics industry. An example of this is the emerging concept of ‘smart ports’ utilizing the internet of things and data analytics to be able to predict vessel arrivals and coordinate all port activity to match. This will result in more reliable and greatly improved supply chain performance. A future increase in onshoring of manufacturing could likely see the emergence of regional distribution centers, rather than the current large-scale centralized national DCs. The future role of these distribution centers would be to directly import and export from local ports. This change would have significant implications for international trade and the local economies of remote port towns. Overall, the clear incentive for automation is an increase in productivity, efficiency, and an overall improvement in the quality of port and shipping services.
2.2 Implementation of Automation in Indian Ports
The implementation of automation initiatives is to be taken up in two major ports – Mumbai and Vishakhapatnam. JNPT, Mumbai is setting up a container tracking system using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology to automate identification of containers. This involves fixing an RFID tag on each container and then installing RFID readers at various locations such as entry/exit gates, container stack yards, rail mounted gantry cranes, and container freight stations which are integrated with the central database system for real-time validation of the container. This system will reduce instances of lost or misplaced containers and also pave the way for Just-In-Time (JIT) operations since the exact location of the container can be traced at any given point in time. Visakhapatnam port has undertaken the initiative to automate the operations at the iron ore berth by installing a fully mechanized conveyor belt system for handling cargo which is a first of its kind in any major port in India. This system eliminates the prevalent manual intervention of workmen in cargo handling activities and ensures zero contact between two different cargoes. This is essential as it fulfills the environmental policy of the port for pollution-free operations and also for the export of high-quality iron ore with zero contamination. These automation projects are part of the National Maritime Development Program (NMDP) to upgrade and modernize the port infrastructure and are funded by the government and private investment.
2.3 Benefits and Challenges of Automation
In the literature review, three different kinds of benefits of automation have been identified: tangible, intangible, and strategic. Although these categories have not been created specifically for port operations, they serve as a guide for identifying benefits achieved from automating port operations. Tangible benefits are those that can be measured and quantified, such as reduced costs and increased revenues. Intangible benefits are those that cannot be easily measured, such as improved customer service and better decision making. Strategic benefits are those that help an organization achieve its long-term goals. An example of this would be using automation to enter a new market or to improve corporate image in an existing market. In addition to identifying categories of benefits, the literature also identifies a fourth concept: the virtuous circle of automation. This argues that increased automation leads to increased productivity and better decision making, which in turn leads to more automation. This concept helps explain why port operations are becoming increasingly interested in making further investments in automation.
Some of the specific benefits identified by Furtseva and Perttunen include:
– Lower operating costs: This benefit comes from automating tasks that were previously performed by humans, decreasing labor costs, or by improving efficiency, productivity, and resource allocation, in turn reducing cost overruns.
– More rapid and appropriate decision making: An automated system can process complex data and yield improved decision-making results. This benefit can be huge but can again be difficult to measure in terms of benefits attributable to system automation.
2.4 Case Studies of Successful Automation Projects
JNPT has already taken steps towards implementing various functions of this system and significant progress has been made in linking the EDI systems of JNPCT and NSICT with the ICEGATE – the portal of Indian customs. JNPT is planning to have complete connectivity with other stakeholders and also other port organizations within the next 2-3 years.
In an attempt to bring greater efficiency in container handling, the port has plans to implement container tracking systems using GPS in the near future. Another significant automation initiative is the port community system. This is an internet-based solution, which aims to connect all the stakeholders in the import/export supply chain such as customs, shipping lines, clearing agents, other custodians, and consignees to communicate with each other to submit and access information related to vessel schedules, cargo status, and customs clearance.
Another automation initiative, which the port has implemented, is Online Delivery order. This solution has been implemented to eliminate the need for taking manual delivery orders from the shipping lines and also to reduce the paperwork. This has been a small but significant step towards automation as this has facilitated direct delivery of import containers to the importers on the basis of electronic delivery orders, thus reducing the dwell time of the containers. This system is now being extended to enable the clearance of import containers starting from the gate till the delivery of the containers.
JNPT is one of the pioneering ports in India which has implemented various automation initiatives. The port has been a follower of emerging technologies, which is evident from the fact that it was the first port in India to implement RFID. The port has implemented RFID to track its containers within the port premises. The RFID solution will facilitate real-time tracking of the containers, which will enable the port users to locate their containers in the yards using the internet.
3. AI Applications in Port Operations
In a recent automation project at the container terminal of the Hong Kong port, a distributed intelligent storage/retrieval agent system was proposed to automate the container location control. This is another example of using AI technologies to automate what is currently a very human-centric task. The system uses an algorithm to determine the best location research essay pro paper owl to store or retrieve a container based on factors such as container dwell time and expected container movement. Both of these types of applications promise significant savings through more efficient use of existing resources.
AI is a natural fit for improving efficiency in complex operations through utilization of optimization and decision-making algorithms. Shipping and port operations are rife with complex scheduling and resource allocation problems, which are ripe for application of AI technologies. As a simple example, consider the problem faced by the port’s marine staff in positioning of empty containers. Empty containers need to be positioned near areas with high exports to reduce container rehandle costs. Given the chaotic nature of port operations and high relocation frequencies of empty containers, it is a daunting task to keep track of which areas have high export activity and ensure that the containers are placed in the optimum location. This is the kind of problem that is both impossible and unnecessary for a human to solve but is an ideal application for an AI-based optimization system.
Port operations involve coordinated handling of complex and diverse activities. Automation and intelligence offer huge potential for improving efficiency and effectiveness of port operations. AI technologies have been recognized as offering revolutionary changes to many industries. Although the shipping and port industries have been slow to adopt AI technologies, they are starting to recognize the potential for AI to improve productivity and reduce costs.
3.1 Role of AI in Enhancing Efficiency
The Goa port has implemented AI in the form of a new software package aimed to cut down on waiting times for ships and cargo. The “Intelligent Port Software” tracks the movement of cargo and predicts where bottlenecks are likely to occur. It edits shipping schedules to avoid delays and improves the allocation of resources. P.P. Sinha, Chairman of the port reports the new system is estimated to bring an increase in revenue from 1.5 million up to 7 million. Another key area addressed by AI is the automation of rubber tired gantry operations. This has been taken up by the Concorde owned Distribution and Logistics Infrastructure (DIAL) container terminal. The AI system aims to automate and optimize the movement of containers to and from storage areas with the goal of 70 movements per hour. The benefits expected are lower labour and maintenance costs and fewer road maintenance requirements due to the rationalization of traffic patterns. The efficiency of this will be most evident in ports planning to build entirely new facilities such as Dhamra port in Eastern India. By starting from scratch and implementing automated systems the potential gains in efficiency from AI will be huge.
3.2 AI-based Predictive Maintenance
The maintenance strategy typically applied in Indian ports is mainly corrective maintenance and to a lesser extent preventive maintenance. Corrective maintenance is the least cost-effective and often results in considerable downtime for the equipment. Preventive maintenance is not based on the actual condition and performance of equipment, which leads to unnecessary maintenance and can often result in equipment failure. Predictive maintenance method is the most cost-effective and least downtime can be achieved with this method. AI-based predictive maintenance is emerging as the next step in obtaining maintenance efficiency and moving a port’s maintenance strategy to a condition-based methodology. AI can provide the prediction of equipment failure based on the severity of a situation and the probability of the equipment failing. This would allow the port to repair or replace the equipment just before it breaks down, which is the most cost-effective method. This prediction can also be used to schedule the maintenance for that piece of equipment into a time slot where it is least likely to affect port operations. Predictive maintenance also helps to extend equipment life by finding and dealing with problems before they can cause significant damage. This replacement to a condition-based methodology reduces the possibility of equipment failure during operations and decreases operational downtime. AI can provide the prediction of equipment failure based on the severity of a situation and the probability of the equipment failing. This would allow the port to repair or replace the equipment just before it breaks down, which is the most cost-effective method. This prediction can also be used to schedule the maintenance for that piece of equipment into a time slot where it is least likely to affect port operations. Predictive maintenance also helps to extend equipment life by finding and dealing with problems before they can cause significant damage. This replacement to a condition-based methodology reduces the possibility of equipment failure during operations and decreases operational downtime.
3.3 AI-driven Decision Support Systems
Another approach to building AI-driven DSS is to utilize modern data-mining techniques. With the growing capacity of computer memory and the ability to store detailed information about port operations in databases, there is great opportunity to use automatic DSS induction from historical data. One such example would be work conducted by the University of Science Malaysia. The researchers took operational data from a container terminal and used it to simulate discharge operations over a 3-month period. By using the simulation to identify key factors affecting ship productivity and to determine and validate simulation parameters, it was possible to build a neural network-based DSS that could predict the expected productivity of future ships and aid the allocation of resources to match the workforce to the expected work requirements. This type of DSS would have a very high potential for improving allocation of resources in case of berth and for reducing the need to hire labor at the last minute, which can be very costly in developing countries where casual labor is prevalent.
AI-driven DSS can be built using several different approaches. Perhaps the most common form of DSS used in the port environment is an expert system. Expert systems are AI programs that mimic human expertise and are widely used for various pattern recognition or diagnostic tasks in fields such as engineering and medicine. For example, Southampton container terminal has developed an automated DSS that decides the stowage location for inbound containers. This is based on an expert system that uses an algorithm to evaluate several factors such as dwell time, discharge time, destination of onward shipment, risk of damage or theft, and likelihood of documentation error to determine the relative benefits of locating the container near the front or back of the stack. The system then compares the relative benefit with the availability of space in the relevant location to make the location assignment. This system has far improved the stowage efficiency at Southampton; however, it cost a large sum for initial development.
Decision support systems (DSS) have been used for several years by utilizing quantitative models or data-driven techniques to assist with decision making in complex environments. With the broad advances and acceptance of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in general, now the huge potential for the development of a new generation of decision support systems exists. These AI-driven DSS can possibly provide more effective and powerful ways to help decision making in the port environment.
3.4 AI for Safety and Security
Implementing AI for port security can revolutionize the traditional method of maintaining port security. Global economic status directly affects defense budgets for individual nations and international port security, and there is a call for enhanced security measures to be integrated within all aspects of port security. AI has the ability to scan an enormous amount of data and intelligently learn from this data. The sweet study bay traditional method of using x-ray machines and metal detectors to manually scan imported cargo is not sufficient to deal with the massive amount of cargo that enters ports. In some cases, there is far too much cargo that requires scanning and not enough manpower or time to effectively scan the cargo. Utilizing machine learning, an AI system can scan through data obtained from various sensors used to monitor cargo and identify what items are considered high risk for national security. An AI system known as Cargostalker, designed in the USA, performs this type of data mining on shipping container data, including container contents and metadata, and analyzes trends and patterns of possibly dangerous containers. This data is input into a rules engine that alerts users to abnormal containers.
Another problem for port security is the massive area that requires surveillance and the abundance of false alarms generated by traditional motion detection surveillance systems. Two researchers at the University of Miami have developed a Multirobot Autonomous System for Port Security (MAS-PS) that employs coordinated teams of mobile sensors and robotic sentries to monitor a port environment. The robotic sensors use a type of AI called fuzzy logic to distinguish between normal port activity and anomalous behavior. This avoids the problem with traditional motion-activated sensors generating false alarms.
3.5 Case Studies of AI Implementation in Indian Ports
On the shoreside vehicle automation, a UK startup company called Academy Transport has successfully used AI to semi-automate the movement of roll-on/roll-off vehicles between compounds in the UK and Scandinavian ports. While these examples are still isolated cases, they are indicators of what may come if AI technologies prove their value and if technology automates, economic drivers may lead to a more pronounced shift toward AI automation in the future.
Japan’s Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisa (NYK Line), a global logistics and shipping company, has been testing an AI system to assist vessel traffic control officers at a port operated by the Yokohama Kawasaki International Port. The AI system monitors and analyses the operators’ communications via radio and email to track vessel movements, weather, tidal and current information, and compute risk assessment on a visual display of the port. Although the AI system is a decision support tool, it is a first step towards automating the traffic control function in ports.
Automation in ports is still in its infancy, and AI has to overcome the hurdle of displacing automation which is already in place – systems and tools used, such as container-handling systems and yard cranes. However, the visual and decision support tools discussed above have high potential to bring AI-enabled automation to ports, if those technologies can be successfully demonstrated in trials and the business case for automation becomes more compelling.
4. Impact of Emerging Technologies on Port Safety
Safety II also identifies that understanding the successful control of deviance and tolerance of failure is vital to controlling the margins of acceptable risk in complex systems. This is related to autonomous vehicles at sea. Research has indicated that the use of autonomous vehicles can reduce errors in decision-making, decrease the loss of life and assets, and minimize negative impacts on the marine and coastal environment. As a result, it would be unacceptable to run autonomous vehicles without the change in technology, as it would increase safety.
The ISPS Code is a comprehensive set of measures to enhance the security of ships and port facilities. It was developed in response to the perceived threats to ships and port facilities in the wake of the 11 September 2001 attacks in the United States. This is in accordance with the Safety II approach. Regulatory requirements are often shaped as a reaction to accidents and failures. In this case, the ISPS code was developed due to significant changes in the security threat to ports and ships.
Emerging technologies for smarter ports: The impact of automation and AI on operations and safety in Indian ports. Emerging technologies for safer ports. This aim has led to the development of several initiatives to improve safety within ports and at sea. These include the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code), collaboration between the UK Maritime and Coastguard Agency and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council in the UK, and research into autonomous vehicles at sea.
4.1 Safety Enhancement through Automation and AI
Safety at a port is typically achieved using a reactive approach. Since an accident can quickly cascade the effects throughout the entire port and beyond, safety is of utmost importance. Driven by a desire to improve safety records and protect workers and the environment, port operators are starting to look towards automation and AI technologies. These emerging technologies have the potential to shift the current safety approach from reactive to proactive. Currently, automation technologies are being applied in a variety of port operations with the focus primarily on improving productivity and costs. AI technologies are also being employed to optimize port operations. For safety improvement, a proactive safety approach essentially means preventing accidents from occurring in the first place. An example of proactive approach is always giving the right person the right information at the right time to make the right decision. Current port operations have had the most success applying this approach in the container handling process. Through the use of optical character recognition (OCR) and gate operating systems there has been significant decreases in the rate of lost containers and corresponding reduction in human injuries sorting through containers in the yards.
4.2 Mitigation of Human Error
With the introduction of any form of mechanisation, it is often said that reliability and safety are compromised. For the stevedoring industry, this is definitely not an option if new technology is to be implemented. The Department for International Trade states that “In the port environment, the health and safety of workers and the public is paramount.” Human error has previously been and still is a large cause of accidents in stevedoring. A study in the International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics showed that “in comparison with the relative frequencies of other factors, human errors have a high significant coefficient in occupational injury and occupational fatality rate.” So the opportunity to lessen the chance of an incident occurring due to human error provides a great improvement in safety. The human factor is something very difficult to quantify and even harder to pinpoint to a single cause. The introduction of semi-autonomous equipment provides an opportunity to counter every aspect of human error with a more reliable machine counterpart. An engineer that worked with Golden Eagle Technology to develop an automated straddle carrier stated that “the only time the machine takes a break is to fix something that it noticed was going to fail soon.” This shows that reliability of autonomous machines greatly reduces proactive errors due to a lapse in concentration or performance of a task in a hurry that was observed in the study of stevedore safety attitude and injury prevention.
4.3 Ensuring Cybersecurity in Automated Systems
In automated systems, cybersecurity concerns arise due to increased dependence on computer systems and internet connectivity. Cyber interference could come in the form of system disablement, corruption of data, and theft of information or technology. While the risk of systems failure can be reduced through the implementation of safety protocols and fail-safe mechanisms, the other concerns pose a more difficult problem. The potential gains from information theft or system sabotage serve as a criminal motivation impeding the advancement of automated technologies. To combat these threats, cybersecurity technologies must also advance, specializing in the protection of automated systems. In order to prevent interference from unauthorized sources, it is essential that a strong and secure communication network is established between the automated systems. While it is difficult to provide complete immunity from cyber attacks, a private network greatly reduces the vulnerability to attack from viruses, worms, and spyware. Data encryption techniques also provide added security to prevent data theft or corruption. The most vital aspect of cybersecurity in automated systems is the prevention and deterrence of attacks. As the consequences of system interference can be so severe, it is necessary to utilize information technologies in the tracking and identification of potential security threats from both internal and external sources. This will allow for swift action in the event of a security breach and serve as a warning to those who seek to undermine automated systems in ports.
4.4 Regulatory Framework for Safe Implementation
Instead of trying to adapt existing regulations and standards for equipment and workplaces to fit the new technologies, there may be a case to develop new specific regulatory requirements for the safety and operation of automated equipment and AI systems. This could be achieved through a collaboration between industry, government, and the research community, to identify the hazards of the new technologies, resolve the issues of conflicting laws or standards, and develop internationally harmonized standards and certification schemes. It should encompass all types of automated equipment and AI, and stages of their introduction and operation, and have the flexibility to be updated so as to not become quickly outdated. An example is where self-guided vehicles and cranes in port and container terminals will fall under regulations derived from the automotive industry, rather than those specific to the maritime industry.
Implementation of the new technologies, automation and AI, should not be hastily carried out in order to achieve short-term cost savings while compromising on the health and safety of workers and the general public. Hence, it is critical for there to exist a framework which can be used to regulate the safe implementation and operation of these technologies in order to achieve the desired safety and efficiency improvements at ports. This is especially important in the case of ports in India, where there may exist a greater temptation to take risks with safety in order to cut costs or gain a competitive advantage.

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