Prevention and Control of Disease
1. Introduction
Prevention and control of disease is an organised effort at both the national and the global levels to prevent the onset of various diseases and also to limit the diseases that are already existing. The process of prevention and control of diseases can be achieved through various programmes and activities. Some of these programmes include routine immunisation, environmental sanitation, appropriate treatment, and health education. Well disease prevention programmes, when successful in a country, lead to overall community developments. These include increased lifespan, increased productive workforce, and an increase in household income. Various control strategies are employed in disease control, that is, before, during, and after an outbreak. However, the use of these strategies depends on the mode of transmission of the disease and the type of pathogen. Some of the control strategies that are commonly applied include environmental control, biological control, mechanical control, chemical control, and physical control. The main aim of the research essay is to outline various aspects of prevention and control of diseases in conditions of socioeconomic and better understanding of diseases prevention and control. It will take into account the various disease patterns, factors that influence the transmission of diseases, the impact of socioeconomic considerations of diseases, the various strategies of disease prevention, and the treatment and management of diseases when they occur. It will also outline various preventive strategies that include monitoring and vaccination and the various curative strategies, including treatment and different modern technologies used in the diagnostic of diseases. Lastly, it will provide evidence in the importance of diseases control and the various areas that require further research in as far as illnesses prevention and control is concerned.
1.1 Importance of Disease Prevention
Disease prevention is the key to public health. It is always better to prevent a disease than to treat it. This is not only more cost-effective but also more successful in terms of the number of lives that can be saved. Preventing disease is always more efficient than treating it. This is because the costs of prevention are usually small compared to the costs of treatment. Most importantly, prevention focuses on all population rather than on those who are already sick, so it helps the maximum number of people. Every community’s objective is to promote good health. When people don’t get sick, the number of people who are sick will drop significantly. This can lessen the burden on the healthcare system so that there is more resources for those who really need it. Also, people will live and work longer when they don’t have diseases. So, society gets more generation working together to build and bring the nations to the new level. In brief, preventing a certain disease will bring much more benefits than treating it. It will not only improve the quality of your life but also will help you to see the future and set the goal of the life. Also, it’s the great way of transforming the society to the better and bring the nation into prosperity. And most importantly, it’s the smart and right thing to do. That’s why health care providers today, more than ever, are recognizing the necessity of disease prevention and focusing more and more on it.
1.2 Overview of Disease Control Strategies
In addition to using strategies to control diseases and epidemics, another important component of disease control is disease surveillance, which can be defined as the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of specific health data for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality. Surveillance systems can provide data on different aspects of a disease epidemic or help to identify changes in the environment or new diseases. The information provided is essential in planning, implementation, and evaluation of strategies to control diseases. There are several strategies to combat the morbidity posed by a specific disease. Those strategies can be divided into two main types.
For secondary prevention strategies, the aim is to detect and treat a disease at an early stage in order to prevent the disease from progressing, the advanced effects, and the transmission. Programmed and routine checks and examinations such as blood pressure testing, mammography, pap smears, and so on are considered as effective tools for secondary prevention strategies. Many disease control and prevention programs make use of these tools and in some cases, these preventative measures are compulsorily required for particular groups of the population. Surveys and interventions to control specific diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and obesity are also considered as secondary prevention strategies.
The objective of disease control strategies is to control and eliminate diseases that are preventable. The strategies can be divided into two main types of strategies, which are primary prevention strategies and secondary prevention strategies. For primary prevention strategies, the aim is to remove the risk factors of a disease in order to prevent the onset of the disease. The risk factors can be either biological, behavioral, or social risk factors. Biological risk factors include genetic predisposition, exposure to trauma, and some pathogens. Behavioral risk factors include lifestyle, for example, smoking, high-fat diet, and becoming sedentary. Social risk factors include poor housing, low income, lack of education, and unemployment. To effectively remove the risk factors, the cooperation of different governmental departments and the public is required. Strategies include health promotion, tailored advice, health education, and law enforcement.
1.3 Objectives of the Research Essay
I will proceed by explaining broadly the end result of our research, what the essay aims to achieve and how we will be going about it. In this research, we will aim to produce a piece which can be used by the health and medical community as a useful guide to the prevention and control of disease around the world. First of all, we want to spread our comprehensive knowledge in this area to those who may help contribute to the global fight against preventable diseases, such as charity workers who may not have a broad range of medical knowledge. Also, given that the discovery of medications and innovative treatment approaches are advancing on a daily basis, we hope to add our existing knowledge to the field and work further to finding a cure for these devastating illnesses. Through this essay, we hope to establish a globally similar understanding of disease prevention and control so that those working in one country may easily apply their knowledge and skills in another in order to help work towards the global eradication of these diseases. Essentially, our goal is to help create a network of skilled workers and professionals, all with a similar comprehensive knowledge. Ultimately, our essay seeks to provide a full insight into the prevention and control of disease, from individual encounters with pathogenic organisms to the restorative processes that occur post-infection, using ulcerating lesions of the skin as an example. By providing an overview of cells and tissue that are affected during this process, the essay will conclude with a summary and evaluation of the changes that have occurred in medicine during the last 20 years in relation to this field of science.
2. Epidemiology of Diseases
Epidemiology is the study of disease in populations. The study of disease occurrence and risk factors in a defined population helps to compare the effect of different healthcare interventions on people’s health. In epidemiology, disease occurrence can be measured in two main ways, by studying either disease frequency or diseases. Disease frequency is measured in two ways, firstly by investigating the number of existing cases of a disease within the population at a specific time, and this is referred to as prevalence. Secondly, by investigating the number of new cases of a disease within the population over a specific time period, and this is referred to as incidence. Incidence data is particularly useful when trying to identify the cause of acute short-term conditions, whereas prevalence data is helpful for planning and allocating resources for chronic long-term conditions. Both incidence and prevalence data can be used to make comparisons between populations and can also be used to monitor health over time. By studying the pattern of disease and how this variation is influenced by risk factors, we can better understand the causes of disease and how conditions can be prevented. This is known as etiological research. The information gathered from studying disease patterns can also be used to make predictions about future disease occurrence. This helps to inform long-term health planning and can be used to prioritize the allocation of resources for different areas of healthcare. Such work may be conducted by many dedicated professionals, from consultants and university researchers to public health analysts and government policymakers who collectively work to improve healthcare and advance knowledge. Epidemiology is one of the cornerstones of evidence-based medicine and public health. It aims to provide the best information possible in order to improve the health of populations. It is a well-established scientific discipline, which has evolved over many years in order to harness the information contained in routine healthcare data and develop a deeper understanding of the origins and spread of disease. By finding out more about the causes of diseases and how these are distributed in the population, it is possible for smarter controlled strategies to be developed which are both more effective and less costly.
2.1 Understanding Disease Patterns
Various methods have been used to organize the information collected in descriptive epidemiological studies. Traditionally, diseases have been classified in terms of person, place, and time, with statistics collected over weeks, months, or years. Over time, efforts have been made to create a more specific and effective way of graphically representing geographical patterns of disease. This has led to the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Fancy GIS mapping allows researchers to track disease patterns in a more visual way. For example, this method has been used to identify trends in mortality rates from cancer in different parts of the UK. Such information is useful for healthcare providers and policy makers, as it can enable resources to be targeted effectively in disease prevention and health promotion. It is also possible to look at the way in which a disease moves through a population by using what is known as networks and tree theory modeling. This investigates the way in which a disease spreads from one person to another. If we map out the pattern of transmission, we get what is known as a network, with the first case of a disease at one end and subsequent cases leading away from it. This method was used during the Foot and Mouth outbreak in the UK in 2001, and had important implications for the way in which the government decided to manage disease risk.
2.2 Key Factors Influencing Disease Transmission
Finally, factors such as environmental changes and demographic shifts should also be considered. Global phenomena, like climate change, have the potential to alter the distribution and incidence of diseases. For example, the anticipated expansion of the geographic range of disease vectors such as mosquitoes – and hence the spread of vector-borne diseases – poses a significant public health concern. Also, demographic factors such as population growth, urbanization, and international travel can contribute to disease transmission on a large scale. As the world population continues to grow and becomes more connected through transportation links, the risk of global spread of communicable diseases will increase. Modern urban life provides conditions suitable for the rapid spread of pathogens, particularly in developing countries. For example, the close proximity between individuals and poor living environments can facilitate the transmission of diseases such as tuberculosis and measles. On the other hand, international travel allows infected individuals to carry diseases from one country to another within a short time, making effective control and prevention more challenging. These factors may be used in conjunction with each other to explain how diseases have become globalized in recent years. For instance, air travel has led to the importation of infected vectors and subsequently caused the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases in countries where such vectors were previously unknown.
Secondly, the infectivity and the virulence of the pathogen are important factors determining transmission. Infectivity refers to the ability of an infectious agent to enter, survive, and multiply in a host, leading to its capacity to cause disease. Pathogens such as the influenza virus have a high infectivity, meaning that it is relatively easy for the infection to spread from one individual to another. On the other hand, the term virulence describes the ability of an infectious agent to cause disease. High virulence pathogens, such as the Ebola virus, often result in severe clinical symptoms and make prevention and control measures more difficult. Moreover, some pathogens can be transmitted even before an infected person shows symptoms. This is known as the latent period that occurs between the initial infection and the onset of disease in the host. A good example is the transmission of the influenza virus; infected individuals can spread the disease to others from one day before to up to seven days after they start to show symptoms. Such knowledge has important implications on the implementation of control measures, such as isolation and treatment.
For instance, in the case of water-borne diseases such as cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, ensuring water purification and sewage treatment, and preventing contamination of water supplies by infected individuals, are crucial prevention methods.
The transmission of communicable diseases is a complex process that is influenced by multiple factors. Firstly, the mode of transmission for a particular disease is a key factor. Direct transmission includes person-to-person and animal-to-person spread, while indirect transmission occurs through common vehicles such as air, water, food, and fomites. In addition, some diseases can be transmitted through vector or vehicle-borne routes. Understanding the routes of transmission is essential so that appropriate control measures can be selected.
Key factors influencing disease transmission
2.3 Impact of Socioeconomic Factors on Disease Spread
The impact of social and economic issues on the transmission of the disease has been a key issue in community health. The underlying factors may contribute to the increased spread of the disease in a community; these include poverty, food and nutrition, housing, access to health care and health behaviors, education, environmental pollutants, and global economic change. Lack of basic needs such as good sanitation, healthy food and safe water which are so essential for the maintenance of health can lead to increased disease levels. Inadequate housing can result in higher rates of respiratory problems, such as asthma or bronchitis, due to damp and cold environments and increased risk of accidents and ill health due to safety hazards. It is again a vicious circle since a person with ill health may then become unemployed, which in turn may lead to further deterioration of standard of living. This is supported by the fact that high rates of infectious diseases are frequently observed among recognized vulnerable communities. For example, Hansen’s disease (leprosy) is most common in the poor communities of poorer countries. In such societies, the social and economic impact of the illness can further isolate individuals as they become estranged from their families, employment and wider social activity. When people are unhealthy, there may be disruption of employment, reduced income and a drain on the money that the healthier members of the family are likely to provide. This leads to families on low income being more likely to suffer from infectious diseases. Secondly, it can escalate the spread of the disease. When people have to work and live in relatively close proximity, there is greater likelihood that infectious diseases will be passed from person to person. Work environments such as factories or offices are frequently found to be potential breeding grounds for the spread of illness. In conclusion, the social and economic issues may cause increased vulnerability to ill health, particularly for the most excluded and disadvantaged in society, and they can also perpetuate health inequalities. It is important for community health that policy makers and health professionals give full regard for the social and economic determinants of health with respect to the prevention, control and monitoring of infectious diseases.
2.4 Emerging and Reemerging Diseases
Emerging infectious diseases (EID) and reemerging infectious diseases are caused by newly identified and previously unknown infectious agents that produce public health problems either locally or internationally. Emerging infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Reemerging infectious diseases refer to those that existed in the past, then declined the numbers of affected individuals, and are now increasing. EID and reemerging diseases are global problems and several factors contribute to the emergence and reemergence of infectious agents. These factors include microbial adaptation and change, human susceptibility to infection, climate and weather, changing ecosystems, human demographic changes and behaviour, economic development and land use, international travel and commerce, technology and industry, breakdown of public health measures, poverty and social inequality, war and famine, lack of political will and vector’s adaptation and resistance. Over the past 50 years, EID have steadily increased around the world and now account for around 12% of all human pathogens. Since 1980, the number of EID events has tripled. These diseases and events have major impacts on human population, causing social and economic disruption over the years. A number of reasons have been discussed as to why EID and reemerging diseases are currently a significant public health problem. First, globalization has facilitated the spread of infectious diseases increasingly by linking the health of nations to one another. The rapid power of spread has increased due to the increasing volume of travel and trade. Second, over the years advances in technology and industry have allowed human beings to come into contact with new sources of infectious agents. Also, the crossing of some new frontiers in industry or agricultural development may increase human exposure to some pathogens. Third, breakdown of public health measures such as proper water, sanitation and waste disposal and control of disease vectors has led to an increase in the number of infections caused by traditional pathogens. Finally, social and political factors have contributed to the problem, for example war and civil strife have disrupted public health services in many countries.
These diseases and events have major impacts on human population, causing social and economic disruption over the years. A number of reasons have been discussed as to why EID and reemerging diseases are currently a significant public health problem. First, globalization has facilitated the spread of infectious diseases increasingly by linking the health of nations to one another. The rapid power of spread has increased due to the increasing volume of travel and trade. Second, over the years advances in technology and industry have allowed human beings to come into contact with new sources of infectious agents. Also, the crossing of some new frontiers in industry or agricultural development may increase human exposure to some pathogens. Third, breakdown of public health measures such as proper water, sanitation and waste disposal and control of disease vectors has led to an increase in the number of infections caused by traditional pathogens. Finally, social and political factors have contributed to the problem, for example war and civil strife have disrupted public health services in many countries.
3. Preventive Measures
Also, the effectiveness and the value of genetic testing as a public health preventive measure will require careful consideration of the ethical, legal, and social implications, together with the close monitoring of the development in both genetic and preventive technologies in the world.
With the advances in technology and understanding of the genetics of many diseases, another potential valuable strategy is the development of targeted genetics-based preventive measures. For instance, genetic susceptibility testing, which estimates the risk of an individual towards a particular disease, provides the opportunity for that person to adopt appropriate preventive measures. Such tests are currently available for a number of diseases, including breast, ovarian, and colon cancer. However, at present, the use of genetic testing as a preventive measure for most adults is limited to those diseases that have a well-understood genetic basis and for which lifestyle changes can be effective in reducing the risk.
The significance of public education and health promotion activities in preventive measures is to provide the general population with the knowledge to understand the influence of behavioral patterns on diseases and to make informed choices to adopt a healthier lifestyle.
On the other hand, avoidance, eradication, and exclusion from certain activities are other types of preventive measures that can be employed in a social context. The objective is to reduce the chance of transmission when the infected and asymptomatic carrier of a disease make contact with uninfected individuals. For example, to prevent the transmission of a gastrointestinal infection, infected food handlers or care providers are legally required to be excluded from work until the infectious agent is no longer present in their feces.
A typical example of preventive measures is the requirement of vaccinations. Traditionally, vaccination is regarded as the most valuable preventive measure with the introduction of common childhood immunization programs, such as measles and rubella. The success in the past has led to the reduced likelihood of diseases emergencies and facilitated the global attempt to eliminate many of these diseases.
The effectiveness of preventive measures relies on the understanding of the human, agent, and environmental determinants of diseases to limit the opportunities of the occurrence and spread of a potential threat. The communicability of an infectious agent and the chance of human exposure are the primary concerns when deciding appropriate preventive measures. However, in reality, many of the diseases cannot be eliminated solely by targeting an individual aspect of controlling measures due to the complexity of a disease’s environmental determinants. Often, a combination of different control strategies is required to control diseases effectively.
3.1 Vaccination and Immunization Programs
The profits of vaccines bring countless benefits to human beings. Every day, millions of people are receiving vaccines and are protected by vaccines from the suffering caused by diseases. Many dangerous diseases are no longer a prominent public health problem in many countries because of vaccination. Nonetheless, it is important to keep in mind that successful vaccination requires adequate public education and government commitment to ensure high vaccination coverage in the community. Also, the success requires a good collaborative effort from international communities to ensure that the inhabitants from all over the world can benefit from the advances in vaccination. With a good public understanding and appreciation of the success of vaccination, we can hope to lead a world that is safer and freer from preventable infectious diseases.
Also, the emergence of new infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism have renewed interest in the biomedical community to detect and control these diseases. Thanks to advances in biotechnology, a new generation of vaccines, such as gene-transferred or DNA vaccines, are being developed to enhance the body’s anticancer immunity and prevent diseases such as AIDS and some chronic infectious diseases. These new vaccines make use of the body’s own natural defense capabilities to prevent diseases.
The welfare of vaccines is also closely monitored by the Vaccine Adverse Event Report System from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration, and the vaccines are rigorously tested in clinical trials to ensure their effectiveness and safety. Modern vaccines are synthesized to increase protection and reduce side effects. For example, conjugated vaccines are designed to improve the effectiveness of vaccines to protect infants and young children against infections. Virus-Like Particle vaccines are designed to increase the safety of vaccines.
However, vaccine success and the herd immunity effect depend on the proportion of the population that is successfully vaccinated. That’s why a high rate of vaccination coverage is important in a community. The success of vaccination in preventing diseases in individuals and populations has led to worldwide efforts to eliminate or eradicate certain infectious diseases. For example, smallpox was completely eradicated worldwide because of the success of smallpox vaccination. Also, the incidence of polio has been reduced by more than 99% due to worldwide polio vaccination. This has led to the declaration of the polio eradication initiative of the World Health Organization. Also, as a result of the global measles vaccination program, the global incidence of measles has been reduced by 60% between 1999 and 2005.
Vaccine prevents the spread of such infectious diseases and eliminates any future epidemics. This is because once a majority of the population in a community is immune to a certain infectious disease, the chain of transmission of the pathogen and the spread of the disease will be stopped. This is known as the “herd immunity effect”. It can protect those individuals who can’t be vaccinated because they are too sick or too young to be vaccinated. It also can protect those individuals who are vaccinated but did not develop immunity after vaccination because their immune system did not work well.
Vaccines are an essential tool for preventing and controlling infectious diseases. Once the vaccine is administered, either to a child or to an adult, the person’s immune system is stimulated to produce antibodies and activated white blood cells that are capable of recognizing the infectious agent if the person is exposed to it in the future. The active immunity will be developed, and the person will be protected from that particular infectious disease for a long time. This is why vaccination is a very effective method of preventing infectious diseases.
3.2 Hygiene Practices and Personal Protective Measures
The research indicates that attention to proper hygiene is the most effective means of preventing infectious disease. Hygiene practices such as hand washing, respiratory etiquette, and cleanliness provide basic and important disease prevention measures. The call for workers to be vigilant in their personal protection is evident in data related to workplace transmission of disease. For example, health care workers are at risk for nosocomial infections, with respiratory illnesses being directly associated with sick days taken by health care workers. Health care workers suffer 1,600,000 to 3,800,000 disabling injuries in the workplace each year, with as many as 900,000 illnesses and 400 fatalities occurring. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has as an expectation of infection control in the healthcare setting that personal protection equipment be made available to workers and that protocols be developed for its effective use. Such protocols were quite effective in describing recommended actions when the swine flu first appeared as a threat to workers in the healthcare setting. The research essay on prevention and control of disease aims to explore the importance of disease prevention and provide an overview of various disease control strategies. The essay also highlights the objectives of the research. The first section of the essay focuses on the epidemiology of diseases, including an understanding of disease patterns and factors influencing disease transmission. It also discusses the impact of socioeconomic factors on disease spread and addresses the concept of emerging and reemerging diseases. The second section of the essay delves into preventive measures. It covers topics such as vaccination and immunization programs, hygiene practices, personal protective measures, health education, and public awareness campaigns. Additionally, it explores the role of screening and early detection programs in disease prevention. The third section of the essay explores control strategies for disease management. It discusses surveillance and monitoring systems, quarantine and isolation measures, treatment and management approaches, and the importance of collaboration and international cooperation in disease control. Overall, this research essay provides a comprehensive overview of various aspects related to the prevention and control of diseases, including epidemiology, preventive measures, and control strategies.
3.3 Health Education and Public Awareness Campaigns
Health education and public awareness campaigns are of utmost importance in disease prevention. The overall aim of health education is to promote individual and collective efforts towards maintaining and improving health, while public awareness campaigns are designed to increase the level of understanding among the general population and also other specific target groups about the occurrence of specific health conditions and the available preventive and curative measures. Health education programs and strategies can include health promotion in the community, health guidance in the health care settings, health education for specific groups and populations, and also the legislative measures that have been put in place. Health education can take different forms; it can be done through health promotion, advocacy for health in networking with governmental and non-governmental bodies, and also health education at different health care settings. These can involve public health measures to prevent diseases and also clinical health. Health professionals’ duty in health education is vital; nurses, doctors, health workers, social workers, and professional helpers are all expected to give health education in different ways. However, health education in the community and public health are best provided by the professionals with the most suitable skills and knowledge. As for the public awareness campaigns, they are carried out to give more exposure to the health education entities and also to assist in sharing the messages across with the public as well as the targeted groups. In Malaysia, the Ministry of Health and non-profit health and professional organizations quite often team up and organize various types of public awareness campaigns in different settings, be it from a health talk, exhibitions in shopping malls to marathons. These campaigns usually target a wide range of audience from different age groups and backgrounds. For instance, a public awareness campaign on preventing obesity may include getting the message across to children, adults, and also elderly people. However, the most challenging part of public awareness campaigns may involve policy makers and members of the public, who are in the position to actively effect decisions in ultimately removing the barriers to change. It is crucial that the public are given a chance to contribute to decision-making and to implement their agreed priorities. Also, it has been stressed out that public awareness campaigns should focus on both raising awareness on the issues faced and also mobilizing support and resources to tackle the problems.
3.4 Screening and Early Detection Programs
Screening aims to identify and treat diseases in their early stages. Early detection programs focus on populations that are at risk for certain diseases. The main objectives of such programs are to increase the number of disease cases identified at an earlier stage, to reduce the burden of diseases in the population, to improve the patients’ prognosis, and to prolong the survival time. As per the World Health Organization, a standard screening test should be inexpensive; it should neither be harmful nor painful; it should be acceptable and reproducible to members in the target population. The test should be able to identify asymptomatic forms of disease, and the benefits should be measurable. Early detection programs have been successful for diseases such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, and skin cancer. When breast cancer is detected at an early stage before it starts to cause symptoms, the chances of successful treatment are better. Breast screening is carried out by taking x-rays of each breast. But when doctors can detect breast cancer by a physical examination, the disease has already begun to cause symptoms and has started to advance. In the United Kingdom, the NHS Breast Screening Program invites more than 1.2 million women to attend for breast screening every year. As a consequence, in the year 2000, over 11,400 cancers were detected, in which 7,600 were discovered by the screening program. These statistics indicate that the program is effective in detecting asymptomatic cancer cases. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. However, it is the seventh most common cancer in the UK. This may be because there is a national screening program in the UK. Women aged between 25 and 64 are offered a cervical screening. Cervical screening is used to identify abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix. If left untreated, such changes can develop into cervical cancer. The program is estimated to save 5,000 lives every year in the United Kingdom. However, more research and effort are needed to develop a program that can effectively screen and detect lung cancer at an early stage. At the moment, there is no recognized method of detecting the disease before it starts to cause symptoms. The United States has just launched the National Lung Screening Trial to identify whether a suitable screening mechanism can be found. So, everyone should have a clear understanding of the importance of early detection and the suitability of different options in order to make a well-informed decision when selecting screening programs.
4. Control Strategies
Scientists and researchers have begun to look outside the box for new ways to ensure that our world is a safer place. One of the new strategies for homeland security is the use of technology. We can see this in action in the development of biological sensors, which are in the early stages of research. Biological sensors are designed to detect the presence of foreign agents, such as a biological disease in humans, animals or plants. These sensors can be deployed in a large array, so even if a large area needs to be continuously monitored – such as a border, or an industrial area – it is cost-effective and easy to manage. There are different types of biological sensors. Some are designed to detect a particular threat – say, anthrax – by searching for the DNA or proteins of the anthrax bacterium. Some existing detection systems rely on the scientists knowing in advance what they are trying to detect but more advanced sensors, using biological recognition technologies, will be able to adapt and respond to new and emerging threats. By using biological sensors as part of a monitoring and detection system, it will be possible to take advantage of real-time data about the actual presence of a disease. This means that, in the future, there will be less reliance on traditional and quite slow methods of infection control such as diagnosing patients by sight or isolating a whole area where a bioterrorist threat might occur. This information can be used to direct resources to where the risk of infection is greatest and to support decision making in the event of an outbreak, for example by assisting the emergency and healthcare services. In this way, the use of biological sensors not only has the potential to increase the likelihood of detecting and stopping the spread of disease, but will also improve our ability to protect the population as a whole. However, at the moment this is an emerging field and scientists are still looking for ways to make sure that biological sensors are reliable, cost-effective and can deliver real-time data consistently. This will require collaborative work between many different science disciplines and underlines the importance of fields such as bioinformatics and genetics in helping to combat disease in the future.
4.1 Surveillance and Monitoring Systems
It is generally true in surveillance work that the more common and serious the disease, the more effort and resources should be employed for surveillance and the more intrusive and extensive these activities could be. All surveillance and monitoring systems should have due regard to confidentiality of personal information and data protection issues in their design and operation. Also, they should be capable of producing evidence admissible in a court, and so this could condition the design and operation of such systems.
On the other hand, passive surveillance is when routine data are sent to a central authority but no specific information is sought. The data might come from laboratories or diagnostic test providers, but the people there do not seek cases of a specific condition. Instead, the results of these tests are reported as a matter of course, and these reports are then made routinely available to the public health authorities.
Surveillance of disease can be active or passive. Active surveillance is when a health professional looks for information on a particular condition. It is often based on the reports of individual cases of a disease by these health professionals, so it may involve doctors, pharmacists, or laboratory workers among others who report cases of a specific disease. This might be done through a constant lookout for the results of a particular test sought to diagnose the condition.
Surveillance and monitoring are fundamental activities in public health to track the patterns, causes, and effects of diseases in the community. These are important. The evidence gathered from surveillance and monitoring helps us understand the burden of diseases in the community and the potential causes of these diseases. This information allows for the planning of appropriate public health responses to reduce these diseases in the community. The information can support different public health activities, including the prevention, early detection, and management of ill health.
4.2 Quarantine and Isolation Measures
Quarantine may be defined as the restriction of activities of well persons who may have been exposed to a communicable disease during its usual or known incubation period. Isolation, on the other hand, may be defined as the separation of ill persons who have a communicable disease from those persons who are healthy and the restriction of movement of ill persons to stop the spread of disease. Quarantine helps to limit the spread of infection from persons who may be carrying a disease but do not know it yet, whilst isolation helps to stop the spread of infection from someone who is already sick. It is a cornerstone for the success of both of these measures that those who are subject to quarantine or isolation are compliant with the regulations in place. Traditionally, compliance with quarantine and isolation regulations was enforced by criminal-law based sanctions; in the UK, for example, such measures appear in the Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act 1984 and the National Health Service Act 2006. However, modern policy has trended towards the use of more education and persuasion to obtain compliance. This approach makes good sense, as it is often the case that complying with quarantine and isolation based regulations will lead to periods of lowered physical and mental well-being, which can in turn lead to people avoiding compliance if it is seen as only enforced by punishment. Even assuming prosecution does achieve compliance with regulations, it almost certainly would exacerbate the social harms that follow in the wake of enforcement-based measures. As Ames has held, the stigmatization of those who come into contact with the criminal justice system for conduct which evidences no personal moral blameworthiness can have wide-reaching impacts for the community. It seems that the modern approach to obtaining compliance with quarantine and isolation measures in the form of health-protection law is to be welcomed. For example, in the UK, education, publicity about the reasons for and benefits of compliance, and the availability of support for those who are subject to quarantine or isolation is all part of the regulatory framework, as is the power of a registered medical practitioner to issue a “removal notice”.
4.3 Treatment and Management Approaches
Some people prefer medical treatment. For example, a research conducted by a medical show that over 50% of disease-suffered persons use medication to relieve the disease, many of them are using alternative medications such as herbalism. On the other hand, some people may choose to manage the disease by doing some activities such as walking, swimming, and exercising. They think that doing exercise is a better way to release pressure and pain of the disease. The non-pharmacological management approach includes psychological treatment, such as counseling and cognitive therapy, and physical treatment which mainly consists of diseases such as massage, acupuncture, and osteopathy therapy. This kind of management approaches are practiced by physiotherapists, occupational therapists, podiatrists, orthotists, and many other specially trained individuals. Football coaching and instruction are also managed by the physical therapies.
The first type of management approach is the pharmacological management. In the term of pharmacological, it means the biochemical process of the substance used in medication and kinds of medication. Medication plays an important role in controlling, curing, and relieving the symptoms of a disease. Nowadays, many diseases can be controlled, cured, or symptoms may be relieved by the medication or drugs used in pharmacological management approach. However, it is likely that individuals may suffer from the disease. It is important to recognize that a person’s life is not just his or herself but also has to take into account others’ lives that could be affected by the disease and people’s strategy on the way of management.
Management approach refers to the range of different methods and therapies used to control and reduce the impacts of a particular disease. It is important to recognize that the ways in which the disease and its treatments are presented and understood have a major impact on the individuals and many aspects of their lives. Often the psychological and social impacts of the disease are omitted when the procedures and results of scientific research are reported. But in recent years, there has been progress in including measurement of the impact of the disease in such research.
Treatment and management approaches primarily aim to cure and relieve the symptoms of illness or injury and to minimize the progression of disease. Treatment involves controlling the causes of the disease and factors responsible for initiating, developing, and sustaining the disease. There are two main types of treatments: specific treatments, which are means used to treat, for example, drugs or surgery. They attack the particular disease, and non-specific treatment that do not attack disease or injury and can also help to manage and cure the specific conditions of the disease. The non-specific treatment includes taking rest and reducing stress.
4.4 Collaboration and International Cooperation in Disease Control
Collaboration and international cooperation are important in disease control. No single country is self-sufficient in dealing with all disease problems. Globalization has increased the interconnectedness of countries, which are more readily exposed around the world to the impacts of diseases. What is more, previously eradicated diseases are making a reappearance, and new diseases are emerging. All these are further exacerbated by the increased ease and speed of international travel and transport. Developed countries like Australia have a particularly important role to play in assisting neighboring countries and the wider Pacific region in disease control. This is not only beneficial to the recipients but also helps to protect Australia from diseases that have the potential to spread from neighboring countries. Australia has developed strong collaborative relationships in the Asia-Pacific region that facilitate information sharing and communication, and the coordination of research and other activities. These include the Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community, and the Asia Pacific Quarantine and Inspection Strategy. The World Health Organization attributes extraordinary success in smallpox eradication to the success of international cooperation. In 1958, the World Health Organization initiated the Intensified Smallpox Eradication Programme, in which mass smallpox vaccination campaigns were conducted annually. In 1967, to help monitor and coordinate the strategy, the World Health Organization created an international team of experts. This eventually led to the establishment of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, with 23 members from 21 different countries collaborating to plan and oversee the final stages of the smallpox eradication campaign. The success of international cooperation in the smallpox eradication is demonstrated clearly in the 33rd World Health Assembly in 1980. Upon the official certification of the eradication of smallpox, the World Health Assembly could not help but praise this critical triumph of international cooperation.

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