BS4S19 Leadership & Management Theories and Practices Module 20 credits
Summer Term – Assignment 1 – 24th June 2023 by 23:59
2.500 words +/- 10% – 50% of the total value of the module
Assignment 1 – Critical Evaluation of Evolution of Leadership & Management Theories
Recommended Structure for the BS4S19 Assignment 1 (Please use this structure)
Title for the Assignment: Critical Evaluation of the Evolution of Leadership and Management Theories Note: This paper is a critical evaluation. Critically discuss the perspectives of different authors (please do a research on how to do a critical evaluation). The professor wants a new reference and a citation on every two lines.
Student number (a must include) and name (optional)
Module Name and Code: Leadership and Management Theories and Practices BS4S19
Course Title: (a must include) Course Leader: (a must include)
Class Tutor: (a must include)
Next Page if appropriate:
List of Abbreviations, List of Diagrams, List of Figures, List of Tables, …
Table of Contents – Number core Headings as they are related to Marking Guide
1. INTRODUCTION – +/- 500 words – Marking Guide – 20%
1.1 Context – outline the importance of L&M as a point of discussion today (2023)
and use relevant contemporary supporting references. Basically what is the importance of leadership and management in 2023. So your importance should be contemporary.
1.2 Aim of Assignment – refer to assignment title (2 lines)
The aim is to Critically Evaluate the Evolution of Leadership & Management Theories.
1.3 Overview of the Methodology (3 lines at most)
State which methods you used in order to complete the assignment should be one of the given options.
Qualitative/Quantitative analysis (A quantitative analysis evaluates quantitative research paper on a topic, while qualitative one evaluates qualitative research papers)
Secondary data (Literature Review + Desk research)
2. CRITICAL EVALUATION of the Evolution of Leadership and Management Theories
+/-1650 words – Marking Guide – 65%
This is the part where many students fail. The section requires a critical evaluation, explain deep, into details and select sources that are really helpful. Shallow papers won’t be accepted. The socio-economic and technical context and drivers are important part of this section cause that’s what your conclusion is all about
2.1 Critically evaluate the evolution of Leadership and Management Theories and their respective socio-economic and technical context and drivers (supported by relevant references) in a chronological order. This will enable you to better illustrate their evolution.
Use 3 Leadership Theories (Two traditional and one contemporary)
Use 3 Management Theories (two traditional and 1 contemporary)
For this part you are supposed to give a critical evaluation for the evolution of leadership and management theories but since you can’t discuss all of them due to the word count limit, you’re required to choose three management theories (Two traditional and one contemporary 750 words) and three leadership theories (Two traditional and one contemporary 750 words).
Discuss the theories in a chronological order. This will enable you to better illustrate their evolution. And you’re supposed to make sure you include the related socio-economic-technical context and drivers (supported by relevant references) for the theories presented. This will add depth to the Critical Evaluation. (Like the social context and drivers of this theories, the economic context and drivers and the technical context and drivers of each theory. (While discussing each theory ensure you mention the proponents of the theories, the year and what made the proponents to come up with these theories (socio-economic-technical context and drivers)
Traditional Management Theories
Scientific management by Frederick W. Taylor (1856-1917)
Administrative management Theory by Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
Bureaucratic management by Max Weber (1864-1920)
Behavioural Management Approaches
Human Relations Theory
Traditional Leadership Theories
Great Man Theory – Leaders are born and not made (1900-1930s)
Participative Leadership – Leadership Styles (Lewin, 1939)
Behavioural Theories – 1960 – 1964
Contingency Theories of Leadership (Fiedler, 1967)
Situational Theories (Hersey and Blanchard, 1969)
Servant Leadership (Robert Greenleaf, 1970)
Charismatic Leadership (House, 1977)
Contemporary Leadership Styles
Transactional, Transformational, Pseudo-transformational Burns (1978)
Trait Theory (Jago, 1982; Bass, 1990)
Principle–Centered Leadership (Covey 1992)
Ethical Leadership (1992, 2006)
Entrepreneurial Leadership (2004)
2.2 Critically evaluate emerging socio-economic and technical context and drivers’ trends (supported by relevant references) likely to inform and influence the development of new Leadership and Management Theories The use of relevant contemporary supporting references is essential!!!!!
For this part, discuss two or three emerging context and drivers that are likely to bring about new theories of leadership and management. These drivers should be either social-economic or technical. They should be recent, trends from 2022-2023. You need to explain why you think they can bring out new leadership and management theories.
3. CONCLUSION – +/- 350 words – Marking Guide – 10%
3.1 Overview of the key critical socio-economic and technical context and drivers that impacted on the evolution Leadership Theories presented in section 2
3.2 Overview of the key critical socio-economic and technical context and drivers that impacted on the evolution Management Theories presented in section 2
Technological context and drivers
Nicolai Kondratiev: waves/long waves that are founded on technological innovation (every 40-60 years in last 200 years)
The Major Economic Cycles (1925)
Emergence of new industries
New job roles and professions
New business cultures and approaches
Josef Schumpeter perspective – ‘creative destruction’ – technological progress as driver of growth, innovation, competition within capitalist system
Socialcontext and drivers
Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1942)
Forms of social organisation; networks
Castells, The Rise of Networked Society (1996)
Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: how social production markets and freedom (2006)
Motivation and human needs
Economic context and drivers
Composition of the economy: industries, sectors
Employment and skills
New value creation and growth
Foundational and Circular Economies
From the professor
We should use references between 2020-2023 in the introduction and from 2019 in the main body.
Have a new reference within 2 lines
Balance the number of words for management theories and leadership theories.
Your conclusion is not a summary, should be an over view
Use USW HARVARD REFERENCING
Page number to begin from the second page.
Must use USW Harvard Style Referencing (guide available on Blackboard) A minimum of 40 to 50 references are expected (Acceptable Academic references)
Overall Presentation, Structure, Style and Referencing – Marking Guide – 5%
• Recommended font is Calibri, font size 12, spaced 1.5, aligned on both margins
• Ensure to use Recommended Structure for Assignment, as it is aligned to Marking Guide
• Must be written in the 3rd person – academic writing
• Ensure to label all diagrams or tables and including source
• Ensure the assignment has page numbers
• Ensure to use English (UK) spell check function
• Must use USW Harvard Style Referencing (available on Blackboard) throughout the body of the Report and in the References section.
Leadership and management are two of the most important aspects of any organization. Leaders are responsible for setting the vision and direction for the organization, while managers are responsible for ensuring that the organization achieves its goals. Over the years, there have been many different theories about leadership and management. These theories have evolved in response to changes in the socio-economic and technical context of organizations.
Critical Evaluation of the Evolution of Leadership and Management Theories
Traditional Leadership Theories
The first leadership theories were developed in the early 20th century. These theories focused on the traits and characteristics of effective leaders. Some of the most famous trait theories include the Great Man Theory, which argues that leaders are born, not made, and the Trait Theory, which identifies a number of personality traits that are common to effective leaders.
Behavioural Leadership Theories
In the 1940s and 1950s, leadership theorists began to focus on the behaviours of leaders. Behavioural theories argue that leaders can be effective if they learn to behave in certain ways. Some of the most famous behavioural theories include the Ohio State Leadership Studies, which identified two dimensions of leadership behaviour (initiating structure and consideration), and the Leadership Grid, which identifies five different leadership styles (authoritarian, benevolent, consultative, democratic, and laissez-faire).
Contingency Leadership Theories
In the 1960s and 1970s, leadership theorists began to argue that there is no one best way to lead. Instead, they argued that the most effective leadership style depends on the situation. Some of the most famous contingency leadership theories include Fiedler’s Contingency Theory, which identifies three leadership styles (task-oriented, relationship-oriented, and mixed) and argues that the most effective leadership style depends on the leader-member relationship, task structure, and position power, and Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory, which identifies four leadership styles (telling, selling, participating, and delegating) and argues that the most effective leadership style depends on the follower’s maturity level.
Contemporary Leadership Theories
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in new leadership theories. These theories focus on the importance of factors such as emotional intelligence, authenticity, and servant leadership. Emotional intelligence is the ability to understand and manage one’s own emotions and the emotions of others. Authenticity is the ability to be true to oneself, even in difficult situations. Servant leadership is a leadership style that focuses on serving others rather than on self-promotion.
Emerging Leadership Theories
There are a number of emerging leadership theories that are still in the early stages of development. These theories focus on the importance of factors such as creativity, innovation, and diversity. Creativity is the ability to generate new and original ideas. Innovation is the ability to implement new and original ideas. Diversity is the presence of different people with different backgrounds, experiences, and perspectives.
Emerging Socio-Economic and Technical Context and Drivers Likely to Inform and Influence the Development of New Leadership and Management Theories
The socio-economic and technical context of organizations is constantly changing. These changes are likely to inform and influence the development of new leadership and management theories. Some of the most important emerging trends include:
The rise of the digital economy
The increasing importance of collaboration and teamwork
The need for leaders to be more adaptable and flexible
The need for leaders to be more socially conscious
The evolution of leadership and management theories is a reflection of the changing socio-economic and technical context of organizations. As the world continues to change, new leadership and management theories will emerge to meet the challenges of the future.