Read the case study and answer the questions below in complete sentences. Case: A physician told a 27-year-old pregnant woman that she is in labor. She has completely dilated to 10 centimeters and is now in the second stage of labor. The physician informed her that the head of the baby appears first, which is referred to as crowning. He also stated that in some cases the baby’s buttocks would appear first. Questions: In what state of delivery is the pregnant woman? How is it called when the appearance of the baby’s buttocks comes first? Describe all the stages of delivery. Briefly list and describe the anatomy of the male and female reproductive system. Compare and contrast a C-section and a normal delivery.

The pregnant woman is in the second stage of labor. The second stage of labor is also known as the “pushing stage” or “birth stage” and it begins when the cervix is fully dilated and ends when the baby is born.
When the baby’s buttocks appear first, it is referred to as a “posterior position” or “sunny-side up” birth.
There are three stages of delivery:
The first stage of labor is divided into two phases: the latent phase and the active phase. The latent phase is characterized by mild contractions and dilation of the cervix. The active phase is characterized by more intense contractions and significant dilation of the cervix.
The second stage of labor is the pushing stage, which begins when the cervix is fully dilated and ends when the baby is born.
The third stage of labor is the delivery of the placenta.
The anatomy of the male reproductive system includes the testes, which produce sperm, and the penis, which is used for ejaculation. The female reproductive system includes the ovaries, which produce eggs, the fallopian tubes, which transport the eggs to the uterus, the uterus, where the fertilized egg implants and develops into a fetus, and the vagina, which is the birth canal.
A C-section, or cesarean delivery, is a surgical procedure in which a baby is delivered through an incision made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus, rather than through the vagina. A normal delivery, also known as a vaginal delivery, is the delivery of a baby through the mother’s vagina. C-section is usually done when a vaginal delivery would pose a risk to the mother or baby, such as when the baby is in a breech position, the mother has a medical condition that makes a vaginal delivery risky, or if the baby is in distress. A vaginal delivery is considered less invasive and recovery is faster than a C-section, but it can also be accompanied by more pain during delivery.