Unit 2-Discussion- COPD. 1300w. due 1-13-23. 4 references.
Using the attached book CHAPTER 22 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 137 complete the following.
Read the following case study and answer the posed questions:
Mr. Les Brown has been diagnosed with COPD 10 years ago. He has been increasingly shortness of breath doing activities of daily living, needing to rest more frequently and feels he is coughing more often.
1. Explain the pathophysiology behind the signs and symptoms of COPD
2. What relationship do you see with Mr. Brown’s vital signs – 26 RR, 91% oxygen saturation, temp: 37.8, HR: 93 BP: 150/70
3. Describe the goals of care for Mr Brown. Make sure to use the COPD gold standards of care( https://goldcopd.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/WMS-GOLD-2018-Feb-Final-to-print-v2.pdf Links to an external site.) for your plan.
4. How would you follow up on your proposed plan of care?
5. What are preventative measures and treatment options for patients with COPD?
6. What are non-pharmacological for COPD patients.
7. What impact does COPD have on patients with mental illnesses?
Responses need to address all components of the question, demonstrate critical thinking and analysis, and include peer reviewed journal evidence to support the student’s position.
Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with citations and references in APA format.
Please review the rubric to ensure that your response meets the criteria.
The pathophysiology behind the signs and symptoms of COPD is primarily due to chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by inflammation and hypertrophy of the bronchial walls, which leads to narrowed airways and increased mucus production. Emphysema, on the other hand, is characterized by the destruction of the alveoli and the weakening of the walls between them. This results in fewer and larger air spaces in the lungs, which makes it harder for air to flow in and out. Together, these changes lead to decreased lung function, which causes difficulty breathing, coughing, and wheezing. The decreased oxygenation can also result in fatigue, decreased ability to exercise and overall poor quality of life.
Mr. Brown’s vital signs indicate that he is experiencing some degree of respiratory distress. His respiratory rate of 26 breaths per minute is above normal, and his oxygen saturation of 91% is slightly below normal. His temperature and heart rate are within normal limits. His blood pressure is elevated, which is not uncommon in patients with COPD who are experiencing respiratory distress. This can be due to increased work of breathing and potential secondary to pulmonary hypertension due to chronic hypoxemia.
The goals of care for Mr. Brown should include relieving symptoms, improving lung function, and preventing exacerbations. According to the COPD gold standards of care, this can be achieved through a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. The COPD GOLD guidelines recommend the use of bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids to improve lung function, and antibiotics and systemic corticosteroids to treat exacerbations. The guidelines also recommend pulmonary rehabilitation, which includes exercise training, education, and nutritional counseling, as well as oxygen therapy for patients with chronic hypoxemia (GOLD, 2021).
To follow up on the proposed plan of care, Mr. Brown should be closely monitored for changes in his symptoms and lung function. This can include regular pulmonary function tests, oximetry, and monitoring of his vital signs. Close monitoring of the treatment regimen is also important to ensure that the medications are effective and to make adjustments as needed. Patient education is crucial to manage COPD on daily basis.
Preventative measures for patients with COPD include smoking cessation, vaccination against respiratory infections, and avoidance of known triggers such as air pollution. Treatment options include bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, antibiotics, and systemic corticosteroids to reduce exacerbations. Long-term oxygen therapy and lung volume reduction surgery may also be considered for patients with advanced COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation is also beneficial in improving patient’s quality of life.
Non-pharmacological interventions for COPD patients include pulmonary rehabilitation, which includes exercise training, education, and nutritional counseling. Breathing techniques, such as pursed lip breathing and diaphragmatic breathing, can also help patients manage their symptoms. Oxygen therapy, which can be delivered through a nasal cannula or a mask, can also be used to improve oxygenation in patients with chronic hypoxemia.
COPD can have a significant impact on the mental health of patients. Due to the progressive nature of the disease and the limitations it places on patients’ daily activities, patients with COPD may experience feelings of depression, anxiety, and reduced quality of life. This can be exacerbated by exacerbations, which can lead to hospitalization, increased symptoms, and increased fear of future exacerbations. Hence, management of mental health and lifestyle modifications are key in managing COPD.
GOLD. (2021). Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive