Communicable Disease: Tuberculosis (TB)
The purpose of this assignment is to discuss concepts of epidemiology and apply nursing theories and research to communicable diseases. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC websites, all located in the topic Resources, for assistance when completing this assignment.
Choose a communicable disease topic from the resources mentioned above or you may select one from the list below:
Write a paper (750 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing to research a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC websites, located in the topic Resources, for assistance when completing this assignment.
Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence).
Explain why this is a reportable disease. Provide details about reporting criteria.
Describe the social determinants of health and how those factors contribute to the development of the chosen communicable disease.
Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors.
Identify any special considerations or notifications for the epidemiologic triangle (community, schools, or general population).
Explain the importance of demographic data to community health.
Describe the role of the community health nurse in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention through tasks such as case finding, reporting, data collection, analysis, and follow-up. Provide an example of how Christian worldview can be integrated by a community health nurse when working with a population impacted by the communicable disease selected.
Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of the disease.
Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.
A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references (i.e., professional health organizations like CDC, WHO, OSHA, and DHS) is required.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Tuberculosis, also known as TB, is a highly contagious and potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but can also impact other parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, bones, and kidneys.
Symptoms of TB include persistent cough, chest pain, weakness, weight loss, and fever. The disease is primarily spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and it can be spread through close contact with an infected person.
Complications of TB can include lung damage, meningitis, and kidney failure. Treatment for TB typically involves a combination of antibiotics, taken for a prolonged period of time, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary.
Demographically, TB is a reportable disease, as per the guidelines of CDC. The reporting criteria for TB includes positive culture for M. tuberculosis, positive acid-fast bacilli smear, or a positive TB blood test.
The social determinants of health that contribute to the development of TB include poverty, poor housing conditions, and malnutrition. These factors can lead to a weakened immune system, which makes individuals more susceptible to contracting the disease.
The epidemiologic triangle as it relates to TB includes host factors such as a weakened immune system, agent factors such as the presence of the M. tuberculosis bacterium, and environmental factors such as overcrowding and poor ventilation. Special considerations or notifications for the epidemiologic triangle include community and schools, as TB is highly contagious and can easily spread in these settings.
Demographic data is important to community health as it helps to identify high-risk populations and target interventions to reduce the spread of TB.
The role of the community health nurse in TB includes primary prevention through education and vaccination, secondary prevention through case finding and early detection, and tertiary prevention through follow-up and disease management. A community health nurse can integrate a Christian worldview by providing compassionate care, respecting the dignity of the individual, and addressing the spiritual needs of patients affected by TB.
One national agency that addresses TB is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which contributes to resolving and reducing the impact of the disease through research, surveillance, and guidelines for the prevention and control of TB.
Globally, TB is a significant public health issue. It is particularly prevalent in developing countries, where it is often linked to poverty and poor living conditions. The World Health Organization (WHO) works to address the global impact of TB through research, guidelines, and programs to increase access to diagnosis and treatment.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Tuberculosis (TB). https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/index.htm
World Health Organization. (2021). Tuberculosis. https://www.who.int/tb/en/
World Health Organization. (2021). Global tuberculosis report 2021. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240014072