Cyber Crime Malware Static & Dynamic Malware Analysis
Malware is a term used to refer to malicious software that is designed to harm or exploit computer systems. There are two main types of malware: static malware and dynamic malware.
Static malware is malware that does not change or evolve over time. It is a fixed piece of code that has a specific set of functions and characteristics, and it does not adapt or change based on its environment. Examples of static malware include viruses, worms, and trojans.
Dynamic malware, on the other hand, is malware that is capable of changing or adapting over time. This can include malware that is able to mutate or evolve in order to avoid detection, or malware that is able to adapt to its environment in order to carry out different functions. Examples of dynamic malware include rootkits and botnets.
Both types of malware can be used for cybercrime purposes, such as stealing sensitive information or disrupting computer systems. It is important for individuals and organizations to protect against malware by using antivirus software and other security measures.
Note: In developing your answers you can make any assumptions you wish provided these are reasonable, do not contradict the content of the case study and are clearly written down. When answering, remember to properly reference and cite your sources.
You have recently been appointed as an internal project manager working as an educational attaché on behalf of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). You are primarily based in the Emerging Technologies Directorate (ETD), a section that coordinates the distribution of education technology resources around the world to deprived areas, to advance literacy and knowledge to local communities. Examples of such work are the installation of local area networking for Internet access (mobile broadband Wi-Fi), the development of online learning courses and the letting of computers to those in need.
As one of six project managers within the directorate, you are responsible for the initial coordination of contractors and resources to villages, communities and other deprived areas. You have overall planning and coordinating authority for the processes and resources in the project, while other teams are executing the project by getting the equipment or develop the content or even going physically to remote areas to assess the local needs. The project is completed and signed-off not before you assure that the objectives are fulfilled, and the feedback received is positive. You are also responsible to assure that the equipment is not used to gain illegal profit (e.g. reselling of the equipment to third party for profit, or using the internet connection for inappropriate use). Timescales and budgets are usually determined by the headquarters and determined on a case-by-case basis.
Within your organisation, you report to the Programme Manager PgM), but you are also accountable to the Deputy Chief Executive Officer (DCEO) of the entire Directorate, who you consider as sponsor. The Programme Manager oversees all ETD internal project managers, and reports to the Operations Director.
Internally, the Legal Team is responsible for all contract administration. The section is led by the Legislation Director, who reports to the DCEO. There is also a Change Control Section for monitoring and recording variation orders and other changes to ensure that projects are completed within time and cost limitations. The Change Control Section is led by the Change Control Team Leader, who in turn reports to the DCEO.
A new opportunity to assist a remote community in India has just presented itself. The 780 inhabitants in the area suffer from poor economic resource availability, shortage of electricity and poor education. The initial stages of the project which you have chosen to manage will include the installation of solar panels and lighting in the village school, building of communication tower to provide wireless data connection, the building of a ‘computer class’ with 10 PCs and finally, a video camera and projector to allow live online session for teaching and entertainment purposes. In addition, your team will develop a set of online classes in technical subjects like – sawing, plumbing, cooking and irrigation. Those will hopefully provide the community with self-developing opportunities to develop skills and potential additional income sources. The infrastructure part of the project will take 26 weeks to complete at a cost of $0.7 million. The entire project from start to finish will be likely to take 52 weeks and cost around $1.2 million in total.
The contract for the first phase you will be managing has been awarded to a specialist main contractor, Remote Communities Assistance (RCA) under a standard form of contract on a fixed-price basis. A variety of pre-approved nominated subcontractors (NSCs) have been specified by ETD for specific aspects of the work required in the village, including connection of wireless telecommunications and electricity generation infrastructures, as stipulated
Above Several specialist suppliers will supply the necessary components to carry out the project works.
RCA has appointed two domestic subcontractors: one to assist with the logistics of getting all the required equipment over to the remote village and a second to develop the educational software (professional online courses). RCA has signed domestic supply contracts with a number of material suppliers (e.g. cables, solar panels, concrete, batteries, LED light bulbs).
In order to ensure that certain aspects of the project are carried out by specialist parties, two external consultants have been appointed to fulfil specific roles. One consultant, Educational Study Needs (ESN), will advise the pedagogical aspects of the courses’ development. The other consultant, Rural Cultural Entertainment (RCE), will provide appropriate content for both entertaining the villagers and provide their cultural desires (e.g. enriching knowledge movies, lectures and online ethnic concerts).
UNESCO headquarters have appointed an internal quality-control adviser to monitor your project progress. They will be sent to inspect your project for risk, quality, Earned-Value based financial control, health and safety on a quarterly basis and will then act to acquire a safety and compliance certification permit from the government.
The local government has also committed to UNESCO/ETD that they will support the project with fixing any technical malfunction within agreed time after the project is launched.
Required: Maximum word limit 4000 words
1. Describe and illustrate two likely Organisational Breakdown Structure (OBS) arrangements of the project organisation, given the following scenarios:
(a) You are an internal project manager (as described in the case study).
(b) You are an external project manager.
Contrast between the two and explain the rationale behind your designs by considering communication, hierarchy, control, contractual and any other allocations.
2. You are about to prepare the cost estimation for your project budget. Discuss likely cost estimation challenges you and ETD could expect. Then, choose five different cost types and headings relevant to your project, supporting your answer with numeric examples in the context of the case study.
3. Refer to Table 1. This table shows normal durations and costs and crash durations and costs for the activities involved in one of the project work elements.
Table 1 – Activity normal and crash durations and costs for the package
Note: The crash duration represents the minimum duration where an activity is speeded up as much as possible. The crash cost represents the increased cost of the activity after it has been speeded up as much as possible.
Note: Where the normal duration and crash duration are the same, this activity cannot be crashed.
Draw a network for the work element, showing the activities, critical path and package duration.
Due to change in priorities and UNESCO threatening to withdraw funding by the end of the year, ETD wishes the works to be completed within 8 weeks. Calculate the most cost-effective way of completing the package at the fastest time possible, giving the cost increase associated with this crash sequence.
Differentiate between earliest and latest activity start and finish times and explain how these variables determine the degree of spare time or ‘float’ contained within activities. Support your answer with illustrative examples.
4. From ETD’s viewpoint, summarise ten main time, cost and quality risks that are likely to apply, and discuss contractual options for addressing these risks within the contract between ETD and RCA. Choose one response type and discuss it in detail, accompanying your discussion with an example not related to the case study.