DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENTS

Each year, 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2019). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors, will impact treatment recommendations.

For this Discussion, you compare types of diabetes, including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Reference: American Diabetes Association. (2019). Statistics about diabetes. Retrieved from http://diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/

To Prepare:

· Review the Resources for this module and reflect on differences between types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.

· Select one type of diabetes to focus on for this Discussion.

· Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.

· Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected, including the effects of drug treatments.

The Assignment

Post a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients, including the effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples.

References

http://diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/

Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. There are four main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and juvenile diabetes. Each type has distinct characteristics and treatment approaches, though many involve some form of drug therapy. Understanding the differences between these types of diabetes can help provide context around appropriate treatment options.
Type 1 diabetes, previously known as juvenile diabetes, is an autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas (American Diabetes Association, 2022). As a result, people with type 1 diabetes do not produce any insulin and must receive insulin through external sources such as injections or an insulin pump. Type 1 diabetes accounts for approximately 5-10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes and is usually diagnosed in children and young adults (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022).
The main treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin replacement through multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion via an insulin pump (American Diabetes Association, 2022). Proper preparation and administration of insulin is crucial, as too little insulin can lead to hyperglycemia while too much can cause hypoglycemia. Dietary management is also important, as carbohydrate intake affects post-meal blood glucose levels. Both short and long-term, type 1 diabetes requires vigilant glucose monitoring and management to prevent acute complications like hypoglycemia and reduce the risk of chronic complications involving the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and cardiovascular system (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022).
Type 2 diabetes involves a combination of insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion (American Diabetes Association, 2022). It accounts for approximately 90-95% of all diagnosed diabetes cases. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity, physical inactivity, family history of diabetes, and certain ethnic backgrounds (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022). Treatment focuses on lifestyle modifications like healthy eating, weight loss through calorie reduction and increased physical activity, and oral medications or injectable therapies to lower blood glucose levels (American Diabetes Association, 2022).
Oral medications are a common first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes. Metformin is usually the initial drug prescribed due to its effectiveness, low risk of hypoglycemia, and potential weight benefits (Inzucchi et al., 2015). Metformin works by decreasing glucose production in the liver and increasing the body’s sensitivity to insulin (American Diabetes Association, 2022). It is taken one to three times per day with meals to reduce post-prandial hyperglycemia. Dietary modifications are also important when taking metformin to control carbohydrate and calorie intake. Both short and long-term, type 2 diabetes requires ongoing management to prevent acute complications and reduce chronic disease risks like cardiovascular disease and kidney disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022).
Gestational diabetes develops in approximately 7% of pregnancies and usually disappears after delivery (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022). It occurs when pregnancy hormones that help supply nutrients to the baby prevent the mother’s body from properly using insulin. Women with risk factors like obesity, family history of diabetes, and certain ethnic backgrounds are more likely to develop gestational diabetes (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2020). Treatment focuses on blood glucose monitoring and lifestyle changes involving diet and exercise. If non-insulin medications are needed, glyburide or metformin are considered safe options during pregnancy (American Diabetes Association, 2022). Both mother and baby need to be monitored closely during and after pregnancy due to risks of complications.
Juvenile diabetes, also known as type 1.5 diabetes or double diabetes, is a rare type of diabetes that shares characteristics of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2022). It typically develops in overweight children and teens and is treated initially with oral medications and lifestyle changes. However, most patients eventually require insulin injections due to progressive beta cell failure. Juvenile diabetes carries risks similar to type 1 and type 2 diabetes, including hypoglycemia, retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease. Careful glucose monitoring and management is important both short and long-term.
In summary, diabetes comes in multiple forms that are distinguished based on etiology, typical age of onset, treatment approaches, and short and long-term health risks. Understanding the differences between types of diabetes can help guide appropriate lifestyle and drug therapy recommendations. With diligent self-care and medical management, people living with any type of diabetes can effectively manage their condition and reduce complications.
References:
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Gestational diabetes mellitus. Retrieved from https://www.acog.org/womens-health/faqs/gestational-diabetes-mellitus
American Diabetes Association. (2022). Types of diabetes. Retrieved from https://www.diabetes.org/diabetes/types
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). All about diabetes. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/diabetes.html
Inzucchi, S. E., Bergenstal, R. M., Buse, J. B., Diamant, M., Ferrannini, E., Nauck, M., Peters, A. L., Tsapas, A., Wender, R., & Matthews, D. R. (2015). Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: A patient-centered approach. Diabetes care, 38(1), 140–149. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc14-2441

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Study Bay Notes
DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENTS

Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how the body processes glucose, a type of sugar that is essential for energy and various functions. There are different types of diabetes, such as type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes, and each one has different causes and risk factors. However, they all share the common feature of high blood sugar levels that can lead to serious complications if not managed properly.

Managing diabetes involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy weight, and medication, such as tablets or injections that help lower blood sugar levels. The type and dose of medication depends on the type of diabetes, the severity of the condition and the individual’s response to treatment.

Some of the common classes of diabetes medications are:

– Meglitinides: These are tablets that trigger the release of insulin from the pancreas. They work quickly and are taken before meals. Examples are repaglinide and nateglinide.
– Sulfonylureas: These are also tablets that stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin. They are usually taken once or twice a day. Examples are glipizide, glimepiride and glyburide.
– Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors: These are tablets that cause the release of insulin when blood sugar is rising and limit the liver’s ability to release glucose. They do not cause weight gain or hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) when used alone or with metformin. Examples are saxagliptin, sitagliptin, linagliptin and alogliptin.
– Biguanides: These are tablets that reduce the amount of glucose produced by the liver and improve the cells’ sensitivity to insulin. They are usually taken twice a day. The most common example is metformin.
– Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: These are tablets that limit the kidneys’ ability to take in sugar, which increases the amount of sugar that leaves the body in urine. They can also lower blood pressure and protect the heart and kidneys. Examples are canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin.
– Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists: These are medications that are injected under the skin once or twice a day or once a week. They slow how quickly food moves through the stomach, which reduces appetite and lowers blood sugar levels. They can also help with weight loss and cardiovascular health. Examples are exenatide, liraglutide, dulaglutide and semaglutide.
– Insulin: This is a hormone that is injected under the skin using a syringe, pen or pump. It helps glucose enter the cells and lowers blood sugar levels. There are different types of insulin, such as rapid-acting, short-acting, intermediate-acting and long-acting, that have different onset and duration of action. The dose and timing of insulin depend on various factors, such as blood sugar levels, food intake, physical activity and other medications.

These medications can have different side effects, such as hypoglycemia, weight gain, nausea, diarrhea, urinary tract infections, skin rashes or allergic reactions. Therefore, it is important to monitor blood sugar levels regularly and follow the doctor’s instructions on how to take them safely and effectively.

Diabetes treatment is not one-size-fits-all. It requires individualized care and regular adjustments based on changing needs and goals. By working closely with their health care team, people with diabetes can find the best treatment plan for them and enjoy a better quality of life.

Works Cited

“Diabetes – Diagnosis and Treatment – Mayo Clinic.” Mayo Clinic – Mayo Clinic,
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20371451.
Accessed 27 Sep 2023.

“Diabetes Treatment: Medications for Type 2 Diabetes – Mayo Clinic.” Mayo Clinic – Mayo Clinic,
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/in-depth/diabetes-treatment/art-20051004.
Accessed 27 Sep 2023.

“Treatments and Management for Your Diabetes | Diabetes UK.” Diabetes UK,
https://www.diabetes.org.uk/diabetes-the-basics/diabetes-treatments.
Accessed 27 Sep 2023.

“Type 2 Diabetes Treatments | Diabetes UK.” Diabetes UK,
https://www.diabetes.org.uk/diabetes-the-basics/types-of-diabetes/type-2/treatments.
Accessed 27 Sep 2023.

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