HS 491 Holistic Health Comprehensive Exam
1. Dictionaries typically define health as ________________________
2. What’s wrong with this definition?
3. How does complementary or alternative medicine differ from conventional medicine?
4. Holistic health is typically defined as ________________________
5. What’s wrong with this definition?
6. An educated person is one who ____________________________
7. Estimate the percentage of people who know what they really want.
8. How does your estimate above fit with the prevalence of anxiety and depression and mid-life crisis and divorce?
9. How many people know how to get what they really want?
10. What do people really want, and what is the prerequisite for actually getting it?
11. What justifies your answer to #10 above?
12. Are people entitled to the essentials of health, or must they earn them?
13. What justifies your answer to #11 above?
14. What is the goal of education?
15. What justifies your answer to #14 above?
16. How many people reach the goal of education?
17. What justifies your answer to #15 above?
18. Comment on the fact that people in large numbers drink coffee. Some 54% of Americans over age 18 drink coffee daily. The average coffee drinker consumes 3 cups day at about $1/cup. In total, Americans spend $40 billion/year on coffee.
19. Alcohol consumption is a common cause of hospital admission. Why do college students drink? Americans spend about $160 billion/year on alcohol. Drinkers consume some 25 gallons/year. For what?
20. At the University of Hartford, smokers are allowed to smoke near doorways.
21. Topsoil is eroding, forests are shrinking, deserts are expanding, coral reefs are dying, fresh water is growing scarce, global temperature is rising and plants and animals are racing to extinction at record rates. Why?
22. This destruction of human habitat is by a) accident b) nature c) executive decision
23. What do executives have in common?
24. The University of Hartford aspires to teach “the knowledge, skills, and values necessary to thrive . . .” (Mission Statement).
25. Can we thrive by tolerating aggressive smoking? Do we become the people we want to be by tolerating inconsideration from smokers and apathy from ourselves?
26. Is second-hand smoke consumption a trivial matter? Not to the 42,000 who die of it each year, and not to their relatives.
27. Non-smokers and the many children who inhabit the U of H campus are regularly assaulted with tobacco smoke, yet the U of H Source prohibits possession and/or use of deadly weapons and dangerous instruments, where dangerous instruments are defined as “any instrument, article or substance which, under the circumstances in which it is used or attempted or threatened to be used, is capable of causing death or serious physical injury . . .” Why are we silent on this? How can we claim to care about health and remain silent on this?
28. The U of H encourages healthy eating in its dining rooms. Signs encourage consumption of whole grains and fruits and vegetables, and to minimize use of salt.
29. The U of H protects its students from toxic forms of stress. Faculty are trained to adopt low-stress teaching methods.
30. According to the Spring 2015 National College Health Assessment of the American College Health Association, 47% of undergraduates found academics to be traumatic or very difficult to handle.
31. According to the above survey, over the course of a year, 87% of undergraduates felt overwhelmed, 82% felt exhausted, 65% felt very sad, 58% felt overwhelming anxiety, 50% felt hopeless, 42% felt more than average stress, 35% felt seriously depressed, and 10% felt tremendous stress. What are your thoughts on this?
32. According to NIH, 60% of undergraduates report drinking in past month, and 2 of 3 report binge drinking. Almost 2000 undergraduates die each year of alcohol, and some 700,000 are assaulted, and almost 100,000 are sexually assaulted, by intoxicated students. Could there be a cause-effect link to #31?
33. “Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.” Where’s that from?
34. “There is no real education that does not respond to felt need; anything else acquired is trifling display” (Allan Bloom, The Closing of the American Mind). Comment
35. “It is not simply what we teach, or even what our students learn, but what kind of persons they become that really matters” (Harold Shapiro, former President of Princeton). Comment
36. “We are uncertain who in higher education has the authority to decide on the nature and curriculum of educational institutions, or what the limits should be on this authority. Not only do we have no morally acceptable way to reach full agreement on the structure and objectives of our various institutions of higher education, but we Americans have no strong desire to search hard for such a consensus” (Shapiro). Comment
37. “Our young people are now in direct competition with youth from developing countries for many of what traditionally have been considered our ‘good middle-class white-collar’ jobs” (Tony Wagner). Comment
38. In 1870, Rudolf Virchow, the founder of cellular pathology, was commissioned to investigate a typhus epidemic in the impoverished mining community of Upper Silesia. In his report, he advocated for democracy. This report was criticized as being beyond the scope of medicine. Virchow responded that “medicine is a social science, and politics but medicine writ large.” Comment
39. The USSR exploded an atomic bomb on August 29, 1949, and a hydrogen bomb on November 22, 1955. Khrushchev announced to the west, “We will bury you” on 1118/56. Air raid drills became as common as fire drills. Public and private air raid shelters became common. School children saw film of nuclear explosions and prepared to be killed instantly in such explosions. Adults prepared also. The USSR launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, on October 4, 1957. Russian ICBMs were discovered in Cuba on October 22, 1962. People everywhere became victims of traumatic stress called the “Cold War.” Comment
40. After 1962, American kids scored lower than foreign kids on international tests of academic achievement. Comment
41. In 1983, The National Commission on Excellence in Education found that “the educational foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity that threatens our very future as a nation and a people.” Comment
42. “If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war. As it stands, we have allowed this to happen to ourselves” (National Commission on Excellence in Education). Comment
43. After 1980, education was no longer for children. It was for National Security, for winning the global competition for power and money. Comment
44. In the modern era, whichever nation builds the best weapons and controls the most money rules the world. Comment
45. In this modern era, education is a weapon and children are soldiers. Comment
46. In this modern era, do all children suffer from PTSD?
47. What four diseases account for 3 of every 5 deaths worldwide?
48. How many people are infected with one or more of the so-called Neglected Tropical Diseases?
49. What are the three most common infectious diseases worldwide?
50. What is the consequence of treating microbes with a microbicide?
51. What is the consequence of treating insects with an insecticide?
52. What is the consequence of treating weeds with an herbicide?
53. What is the consequence of treating cancer with a cancer-killing chemical?
54. Experts are calling for a shift in focus from acute to chronic disease. What’s wrong with this call?
55. The WHO’s top ten killers for 2015 is, in order,: ischaemic heart disease, stroke, lower respiratory infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, diabetes, Alzeheimer’s disease, diarrhoeal disease, TB, and road injury. Comment
56. What’s wrong with the WHO list of top ten killers?
57. In the doctor’s waiting room, the television displayed “The Price is Right.” Comment
58. In the college dinning room, meals choices included hotdogs and beef burgers. Comment
59. In the college dinning room, eggs were not certified humane. Comment
60. The high school sponsored football. Comment
61. The college sponsored club boxing. Comment
62. Alcohol was served at the retirement party. Comment
63. Food companies add salt to their products to increase sales. Comment
64. The car came equipped with air conditioning. Comment
65. The new mother wanted antibiotics for her baby, who was suffering from nasal congestion, cough, and fever. Comment
66. The homeowner considered hiring a lawn-care company. Comment
67. In Connecticut, child abuse is suspected when “a child has been inflicted with physical injury or injuries other than by accidental means.” Such injuries include: bruises, scratches, lacerations, injuries to bone, muscle, cartilage, ligaments, and head injuries, and internal injuries. Comment
66. In most sports such injuries can occur, but only by accident or foul.
67. In collision sports such as football, boxing, and hockey, such injuries can occur by non-accidental means, i.e., by blocking or tackling or punching or body checking True False
68. The gym included treadmills along with elliptical exercisers and stationary bikes. Comment
69. The American Public Health Association has an annual meeting. Comment
70. Representatives from countries throughout the world met in Paris in 2015 to enact laws to reduce climate change. Comment
71. In September 2000, the Millennium Development Treaty became the most widely ratified treaty of all time. The UN General Assembly resolved unanimously to achieve eight goals by 2015: 1. End hunger, 2. End illiteracy, 3. End gender inequality, 4. Reduce child mortality, 5. Improve maternal health, 6. Fight infectious diseases including HIV, malaria, and TB, 7. Protect the human environment, and 8. Form global partnerships for development. Comment
72. Were the MDG achieved? Why not? Comment
73. On December 10, 1948, the General Assembly adopted and proclaimed, without dissenting vote, “the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance . . .” (Preamble). Has this been done? Why not? Comment
74. Do you keep this Declaration constantly in mind and strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures secure their universal effective recognition and observance? Why not? Comment
75. “There are chefs that cook food that they believe in, and people will try it because they’re open to a new experience, and they’ll end up liking it” Chef. Comment
76. Comment on connoisseurs of wine.
77. Comment on gourmet dining.
78. “One Health” is a collaborative of multiple health sciences working to attain optimal health for people, domestic animals, wildlife, plants, and our environment. Comment
79. Environmental change, population growth, excessive consumption, and economic disparity have accelerated emergence and spread of disease. Comment
80. “One Health” contends that human health is dependent on the health of all living things. Comment
81. “One Health” consists of three components: a) microbes, b) environment, c) human-animal interactions. What’s missing?
82. Among the microbial threats to health, RNA viruses are greatest: “RNA viruses, as opposed to DNA viruses, are far more likely to produce mutations during their frequent replications because they do not have the same protective mechanism against copying or coding errors. This high rate of mutation in RNA viruses is believed to enhance their ability to cross species lines and, once established in a new species, to continue to mutate. RNA viruses often have multiple animal species as hosts and are believed to easily cross species lines, creating new host species, including human beings.” Comment
83. “The UN’s refugee agency reports that the number of displaced people is at its highest ever – surpassing even post-World War II numbers, when the world was struggling to come to terms with the most devastating event in history The total at the end of 2015 reached 65.3 million – or one out of every 113 people on Earth, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees” CNN. Human migrations create epidemics. Comment
84. Pets confer health benefits on owners. Comment
85. The WHO adopted the International Health Regulations (IHR) that are binding on all WHO members. Comment
86. “Humans are the dominant species on Earth and ecology is key to understanding the multiple feedbacks through which their activities affect human health” (Duke, Biology).
87. The ease of world travel and increased global interdependence have increased the complexity of controlling infectious disease. Comment
88. Some 60 to 80 percent of new human infections likely originate in animals, mostly rodents and bats.
89. “The emerging new paradigm of public health is based on a holistic conception of health and on creating social and environmental conditions conductive for health.” (European J. Public Health).
90. The International Conference on Primary Health Care in Alma-Ata in 1978 called for “Health for All by the Year 2000” through primary health care. Comment
91. The Alma-Ata Conference defined health as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Comment
92. The Alma-Ata Conference recognized health as a fundamental human right. Comment
93. According to the WMA Declaration of Helsinki, physicians must consider the health of their patient to be the first consideration. Comment
94. According to this Declaration, “medical research is subject to ethical standards that promote and ensure respect for all human subjects and protect their health and rights.” Comment
95. According to this Declaration, “while the primary purpose of medical research is to generate new knowledge, this goal can never take precedence over the rights and interests of individual research subjects.” Comment.
96. The UN Sustainable Development Goals include ending poverty and hunger, and promoting good health and education, and equality between the genders. Comment
97. The UN Sustainable Development Goals include access to safe water and effective sewers, and to affordable clean energy, and to decent work and economic growth. Comment
98. The UN Sustainable Development Goals include building resilient infrastructure, and sustainable industrialization and innovation, and reducing inequalities, and building inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities. Comment
99. The UN Sustainable Development Goals include sustainable consumption and production, and combating climate change, and protecting ocean and land resources, and promoting liberty and justice for all, and forging partnerships for development. Comment
100. “Let me dispose of one idea right from the start. Many people assume that the rich have gotten rich because the poor have gotten poor . . . Economic development is not a zero-sum game in which the winnings of some are inevitably mirrored by the losses of others. This game is one that everybody can win” (Sachs, p. 31). Comment.
101. “Some people imagine that the wealth of the world is a static quantity, like a pie that must be divided among a lot of people. In that model, the bigger the slice the rich get, the less there is for the poor . . . But the world’s wealth is not fixed in size. The world is vastly richer now than it was, say, a thousand years ago. By finding better ways to create what people want, entrepreneurs make themselves rich, but they don’t necessarily make others poorer” (Singer, p. 29). Comment
102. “When there are large losses to be allocated, any economic decision has a large zero-sum element. The economic gains may exceed the economic losses, but the losses are so large as to negate a very substantial fraction of the gains. What is more important, the gains and losses are not allocated to the same individuals or groups. On average, society may be better off, but this average hides a large number of people who are much better off and large numbers of people who are much worse off. If you are among those who are worse off, the fact that someone else’s income has risen by more than your income has fallen is of little comfort” (Thurow, p. 11-12). Comment
103. There are two different health benefits: a) extended survival, and b) improved quality of life. How do they relate? If you suffer from depression, you might estimate the quality of your life at 30% or so of life at full health. That means you would take 3 days at full health for 10 days depressed. Comment.
104. Imagine a statistic, the Quality Adjusted Life Year, or QALY, that described the sum of survival and quality. Depression = 0.3 QALY. Full Health = 1 QALY. Then 10 X .3 QALY = 3 X 1 QALY. Or, 10 days depressed = 3 days at full health.
105. Should we spend to achieve equal QALYs? What’s better, to give a 20% quality of life enhancement for 60 years, or 10 years additional survival at 70% quality? Comment.
106. The HDI is a summary measure of average achievement in three key dimensions, health (life expectancy), education (years of schooling), and wealth (GNI/c). Among all countries, the HDI varies from .337 in Niger to .944 in Norway. Comment
107. Among all countries, IMR varies from 2 to 117, and U5MR from 4 to 180.
108. Among all countries, AMR-F varies from 40 to 430 and AMR –M from 60 to 470.
109. Among all countries, adolescent birth rate varies from 2 to 200, and inequality in life expectancy from 5 to 51.
110. Among all countries, GDP/c varies from $87,000 to $400, and Health $/c from $10,000 to $40.
111. Among all countries, mean years of schooling varies from 12.9 to 1.4 years.
112. The Mortality-Immorality-Prosperity Index (MIP) consists of A/B, where A is (IMR) (U5MR) (AMR-F) (AMR-M) (Adolescent Births) (Inequal LE), and B is
(GDP/c) (Health $/c) (Mean Years of Schooling).
113. Among all countries, MIP varies from .000073 to 272,998,809.
114. All medical research involving human subjects must be preceded by careful assessment of predictable risks and burdens to the individuals and groups involved in the research in comparison with foreseeable benefits to them and to other individuals or groups affected by the condition under investigation.”
115. “Physicians may not be involved in a research study involving human subjects unless they are confident that the risks have been adequately assessed and can be satisfactorily managed.”
116. “Participation by individuals capable of giving informed consent as subjects in medical research must be voluntary. Although it may be appropriate to consult family members or community leaders, no individual capable of giving informed consent may be enrolled in a research study unless he or she freely agrees.”
117. “In medical research involving human subjects capable of giving informed consent, each potential subject must be adequately informed . . . The potential subject must be informed of the right to refuse to participate in the study or to withdraw consent to participate at any time without reprisal . . . After ensuring that the potential subject has understood the information, the physician or another appropriately qualified individual must then seek the potential subject’s freely-given informed consent, preferably in writing. If the consent cannot be expressed in writing, the non-written consent must be formally documented and witnessed.”
118. “Cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and respiratory diseases like asthma now kill more people worldwide than all other causes combined. And the trend will only accelerate as the global population ages and sedentary lifestyles and unhealthy food become more common around the world.” Comment
119. Globally, four chronic diseases now account for three of every five deaths: heart disease, common cancers, respiratory diseases, and diabetes. Although thought to be associated with higher standards of living, they now affect more poor people than wealthy ones . . . Diet and physical activity now account for 40% and 10% of deaths from these diseases, with tobacco exposure accounting for 17%”.
120. A recent report ranks the U. S. last in health among peer nations. “The United States has higher rates of adverse birth outcomes, heart disease, injuries from motor vehicle accidents and violence, sexually acquired diseases, and chronic lung disease. Americans lose more years of life to alcohol and other drugs. The United States has the highest rate of infant mortality among high-income countries and the second highest incidence of AIDS and ischemic heart disease, and it has, for decades, experienced the highest rate of obesity and diabetes from age 20 onward”.
121. “For there is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so . . .” (Hamlet, Hamlet, Act II, Scene 2). How does this relate to health?
15. Our ancestors were fierce competitors, and we inherited their genes. True False
16. Thomas Malthus (1790) is famous for claiming that poor people are genetically inferior to rich people. True False
17. According to Malthus, helping the poor today, will make more poor in need of help tomorrow. True False
18. What evidence bears on the validity of this hypothesis?
19. The richest 10% of Americans own more than 75% of wealth, while the bottom 90% of Americans own less than 25% of all wealth. True False
2023. Destruction of human habitat and social fabric is consistent with the recognition of the inherent dignity and equal and inalienable rights of all people. True False
24. Destruction of human habitat and social fabric is the path to holistic health and liberty and justice and peace for all. True False
36. Much, if not most, of the negative impact of college is due to grades. True False
37. Preschoolers do not think in terms of disciplines, but in terms of one global whole. True False
38. Teaching academic disciplines to young children is miseducation. True False
39. Disciplinary instruction for older children and undergraduates is miseducation unless the disciplines are integrated into one global whole. True False
40. 42. Adolf Hitler would have agreed with the above. True False
43. What is that teaching and learning that really matters?
4449. What was wrong with the big-wig celebration at the new University of Buffalo School of Medicine?
50. In my school years (1949-1962), kids knew that education was for them. Teachers worked for the kids. True False
(Topic 19: Alcohol consumption is a common cause of hospital admission. Why do college students drink? Americans spend about $160 billion/year on alcohol. Drinkers consume some 25 gallons/year; for what?)
Alcohol consumption mostly begins in college. It is because the students join a new environment where they are free from the control and guidance of their parents. The students have to get friends and make new relationships to keep them company while undertaking their studies. It is from the interactions with one another that they may get involved and develop the drinking behavior or habit. One way of alcohol consumption thus starts through the establishment of peers’ relationships. Other ways include drinking for the purpose of entertainment when partying and drinking to cope with a situation such as failure in exams and sexual assaults. Alcohol is addictive, and once a person begins drinking, they can find it had to stop. Thus the consumption may continue even past the college. Regardless of the way a person started drinking; alcohol consumption may have devastating effects which may result in hospitalization.
Solving alcohol consumption problems are not that simple due to its addictive nature. However, establishment some programs would be useful in helping to reduce the problem and shape the lives of students to holistic health. Some of the programs that are appropriate and would contribute positively to solving the problem include but not limited to introduction and enactment of college alcohol policies; educating the students on positive impacts of not drinking; and creating parent awareness programs and engage of the family. The programs will protect the students from drinking and eradicate the negative thoughts that may result in drinking. Solving the problem in college would be a major break and score because it will automatically reduce the number of adults who drink as a behavior carried from the campus.
To sum up, excess alcohol consumption is dangerous, and appropriate measures, policies, and programs are necessary for the realization of true holistic health.