What are the characteristics that make human language unique? The field has moved to understand how to model language production and understanding. What factors contribute or not to difficulties in the production and understanding of language? Dp 5-2 (560)

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Human language has several unique characteristics that set it apart from other forms of communication. Some of these characteristics include:
Duality: Human language is organized at two levels. At one level, there are individual sounds (phonemes) that don’t carry meaning by themselves. At another level, these sounds are combined to form meaningful units (morphemes, words, phrases, and sentences).
Displacement: Human language allows us to talk about things that are not present in our immediate environment, such as past events, future plans, or hypothetical situations.
Arbitrariness: The relationship between a word’s form and its meaning is generally arbitrary. For example, there is no inherent reason why the word “dog” should represent the concept of a dog.
Productivity: Human language is highly productive, meaning that we can create an infinite number of new sentences by combining words in different ways.
Recursion: Human language allows for the embedding of one linguistic unit within another, creating complex structures and allowing for more nuanced communication.
Difficulties in language production and understanding can arise from various factors, such as:
Cognitive factors: Issues with memory, attention, or processing speed can impact language production and comprehension.
Neurological factors: Damage to specific brain regions, such as Broca’s area or Wernicke’s area, can result in language impairments.
Developmental factors: Language development can be affected by genetic factors, environmental influences, or developmental disorders like autism spectrum disorder or specific language impairment.
Social factors: Language understanding can be influenced by cultural differences, dialects, or social context.
Emotional factors: Stress, anxiety, or other emotional states can impact language production and comprehension.
Understanding these factors can help researchers develop models of language production and comprehension, as well as inform interventions for individuals with language difficulties.

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