1. In the light of the urbanization of America (pun intended), using websites (plural) or your choosing, locate information and write an in=depth submission on light pollution and the detrimental impact on wildlife. Include information on at least three specific species that have been negatively affected. Be sure to identify your sources. (2 page)

2. List and write a one or two sentence summery of each of the 8 principles that should be included in good land-use planning.

3. Write an article review on the “Focus On” honeybees on

4. List and write one or two well=constructed sentences summarizing EACH of the six problems of pesticide use in agriculture discussed

5. List and explain the six soil conservation practices

6. Do research and educate us on the pros and cons of using organic products on your lawn, garden, or field crops versus the pros and cons of using inorganic products.  Is consuming foods grown organically really healthier for your body?

Light Pollution and Its Detrimental Impact on Wildlife
Light pollution is the excessive or inappropriate artificial lighting in the environment that leads to a disruption of natural light patterns. The increasing trend of urbanization in America has resulted in a surge of light pollution, which poses a significant threat to wildlife. According to research conducted by the National Park Service, light pollution can negatively impact more than 90% of all animals.
One of the major issues caused by light pollution is the disruption of animal behavior and migration patterns. Birds, for instance, rely on natural light cycles to navigate during migration, but artificial lights can mislead them and lead them to their deaths. Similarly, sea turtles are drawn towards artificial lights instead of the moonlight, causing them to become disoriented and struggle to return to the sea.

Another significant impact of light pollution is the alteration of breeding and feeding behaviors of various animal species. Nocturnal animals such as bats and owls are particularly affected as they rely on darkness to hunt for prey. Artificial lights can, therefore, result in the starvation of such animals, leading to a decline in their population. Furthermore, studies have shown that light pollution can also disrupt the reproductive cycles of various fish species.

Three specific species that have been negatively impacted by light pollution are:

i) Sea turtles – Artificial lights disrupt their nesting habits and lead them to stray away from the ocean, reducing their chances of survival.

ii) Birds – Artificial lights can lead them to collide with buildings and towers, resulting in death or injury.

iii) Bats – Artificial lights can interfere with their navigation, leading them to die of starvation.

Sources:

International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) – https://www.darksky.org/light-pollution/wildlife/
National Park Service – https://www.nps.gov/subjects/nightskies/light-pollution-impacts.htm
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) – https://www.rspb.org.uk/birds-and-wildlife/wildlife-guides/other-garden-wildlife/light-pollution/
Eight Principles of Good Land-Use Planning
i) Inclusiveness and Collaboration – All stakeholders should be involved in the planning process to ensure diverse perspectives are considered.
ii) Balance and Integration – The use of land should consider economic, social, and environmental factors.
iii) Environmental Stewardship – Protecting natural resources, such as soil, water, and wildlife habitats.
iv) Compact and Connected Development – Encouraging compact, mixed-use development to reduce sprawl and promote sustainable transportation options.
v) Diversity and Quality of Housing – Providing a range of housing options for different income levels and lifestyles.
vi) Economic Vitality – Supporting economic growth and development in a manner that benefits the community as a whole.
vii) Preservation and Enhancement of Historic, Cultural, and Natural Features – Recognizing and preserving the cultural and historical significance of a community.
viii) Implementation – Ensuring the successful implementation of land-use plans through effective governance and resource management.
Source: American Planning Association – https://www.planning.org/policy/guides/adopted/principles.htm

Article Review: “Focus On” Honeybees
The article “Focus On” Honeybees, published in the journal “Science” in 2008, discusses the importance of honeybees in agriculture and the challenges they face in their survival. The article highlights the role of honeybees as pollinators and their contribution to crop production, with an estimated economic value of $15 billion in the US alone.
The article further discusses the phenomenon of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a phenomenon where worker bees

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