MSN5300 Evidence Table Team Group B
A literature review is the foundation for every research project. The matrix reflects the structure of empirical research articles. Summarize each study across the row. Adding pg #s will help keep track of where specific information is located. Try to summarize in your own words – add quotes where you don’t.
Citation (APA format) Research question/ Purpose/Hypothesis Theory/ Framework Research Design Research
Sample Research variables/ measures Intervention/
1. Article #1:
Mohamed, F. Z., & Aboelmagd, A. N. (2020). Effect of early skin-to-skin contact between mother and her neonate on initiation of breastfeeding and neonate physiological parameters. Int J Res Paediatr Nurs, 2(1), 9.
Yanara The purpose of this research is to investigate whether skin-to-skin contact duration after cesarean section affects breastfeeding outcomes.
The hypothesis shows that Mothers who have skin-to-skin contact with their newborns are more likely to initiate neonatal breastfeeding early. The research design is cross-sectional. The data was collected from 70 people of different ages and educational levels. The study group and control group data were analyzed to check parity, breastfeeding history, and gravida. The study measures the relationship between the practice of early skin-to-skin contact and two primary outcomes: the initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour after birth, and the neonate’s physiological parameters, such as heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, blood glucose levels, and thermal regulation. Early skin-to-skin contact after birth is an effective, safe, low-cost, and simple intervention for full-term newborns, with benefits such as the increased likelihood of successful early initiation and longer duration of breastfeeding, and improved physiological stability.
2. Article #2
Alebachew Bayih, W., Assefa, N., Dheresa, M., Minuye, B., & Demis, S. (2019). Neonatal hypothermia and associated factors within six hours of delivery in eastern part of Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC pediatrics, 19(1), 1-10.
Jessica To identify the factors associated with neonatal hypothermia within six hours of delivery in the study area, including maternal and neonatal characteristics, environmental factors, and delivery-related factors.
Maternal and neonatal characteristics such as low birth weight, prematurity, and inadequate antenatal care, environmental factors such as low room temperature, and delivery-related factors such as delayed initiation of breastfeeding are associated with the occurrence of neonatal hypothermia
The research design is cross-sectional. The study involved 403 mothers in Ethiopia. The data was analyzed in the first six minutes after birth. Almost all the babies were drier with more than half wrapped well. The survey showed that almost all did not have contact with their moms. The study measures the presence or absence of hypothermia, defined as axillary temperature less than 36.5°C. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data on maternal socio-demographic characteristics and behavioral factors, as well as a checklist to obtain information on maternal obstetric complications, neonatal health, and other relevant factors The study did not involve any intervention or treatment. The study was focused on identifying risk factors for hypothermia in order to inform prevention strategies.
3. Article #3
Safari, K., Saeed, A. A., Hasan, S. S., & Moghaddam-Banaem, L. (2018). The effect of mother and newborn early skin-to-skin contact on initiation of breastfeeding, newborn temperature and duration of third stage of labor. International breastfeeding journal, 13(1), 1-8.
Jenny The objective of this study was to evaluate how skin-to-skin contact (SCC) impacts the initiation of breastfeeding, newborn body temperature, and the length of the third stage of labor. The study is based on the principles of the “Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative” (BFHI), which recommends early and uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact between the mother and newborn immediately after birth. The BFHI is based on the understanding that skin-to-skin contact has numerous benefits for both the mother and newborn, including promoting successful breastfeeding initiation, stabilizing newborn body temperature, and facilitating the natural progression of the third stage of labor. A quasi-experimental study In this study, 108 mothers were randomized into two groups: an intervention group of 56 mothers and a control group of 52 mothers. Both groups were homogeneous in terms of age and gravidity. The study measured the duration of the third stage of labor in minutes, initiation of breastfeeding in minutes from birth until the first breastfeeding, and newborn temperature as axillary temperature 30 minutes after birth. The intervention in this study was the early mother and newborn skin-to-skin contact (SSC) after birth, practiced by the intervention group, while the control group did not receive SSC.
4. Article #4
L Juan, J., Zhang, X., Wang, X., Liu, J., Cao, Y., Tan, L., … & Yang, H. (2022). Association between Skin-to-Skin Contact Duration after Caesarean Section and Breastfeeding Outcomes. Children, 9(11), 1742. au, Y., Tha, P. H., Ho‐Lim, S. S. T., Wong, L. Y., Lim, P. I., Citra Nurfarah, B. Z. M., & Shorey, S. (2018). An analysis of the effects of intrapartum factors, neonatal characteristics, and skin‐to‐skin contact on early breastfeeding initiation. Maternal & child nutrition, 14(1), e12492.
Judith The purpose of this research is to investigate whether skin-to-skin contact duration after cesarean section affects breastfeeding outcomes.
Skin-to-skin contact duration after the cesarean section has a positive association with breastfeeding outcomes. Specifically, longer skin-to-skin contact duration is associated with increased breastfeeding initiation, longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and higher rates of breastfeeding at 6 months postpartum The association between skin-to-skin contact duration after Caesarean Section (C-section) and early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) can be understood within the framework of several theories, including the ecological model of breastfeeding. The ecological model of breastfeeding posits that breastfeeding is influenced by multiple factors, including individual, social, cultural, and environmental factors. Skin-to-skin contact after C-section can be seen as an important environmental factor that can influence breastfeeding outcomes, particularly EIBF. Immediate and prolonged skin-to-skin contact can help to create a supportive environment that promotes successful breastfeeding. The research design is cross-sectional The study included 679 participants from four hospitals, with 80% of them receiving immediate skin-to-skin contact (SSC) after Caesarean Section (CS) and 21.4% remaining in SSC for at least 90 minutes after birth. 136 participants (20%) who did not receive SSC were categorized as controls and received routine care. The study found that 58% of newborns initiated breastfeeding early, and 62.9% were exclusively breastfed at hospital discharge. Variables and measures used in the study on the association between skin-to-skin contact (SSC) duration after Caesarean Section (CS) and breastfeeding outcomes included SSC duration (categorized as no SSC, immediate SSC, and SSC for at least 90 minutes), and two breastfeeding outcomes (early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge). The researchers only observed and analyzed the effects of intrapartum factors, neonatal characteristics, and skin-to-skin contact on early breastfeeding initiation.
5. Article #5
Thabet, H., & Gohar, I. (2019). Effect of Early Maternal-Neonate Skin-to-Skin Contact at Birth on the Neonates Temperature and Breastfeeding Initiation. Int J Nov Res Healthc Nurs, 6(2), 12.
Nurys The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of early skin-to-skin contact between mother and newborn on newborn temperature and initiation of breastfeeding. Early skin-to-skin contact with mothers after birth reduces the risk of hypothermia in neonates compared to those who do not receive such contact. Furthermore, neonates who receive early skin-to-skin contact with their mothers also show earlier initiation of breastfeeding than those who do not. The theory behind the effect of early skin-to-skin contact between mothers and neonates is that it promotes the release of hormones such as oxytocin, which enhances maternal bonding and promotes lactation. Additionally, skin-to-skin contact helps regulate the neonate’s body temperature and stabilizes their vital signs. The framework for this study may be based on the concepts of maternal-infant bonding, the benefits of skin-to-skin contact, and the importance of early breastfeeding initiation. Quasi-experimental design was used to conduct the present study The research sample consisted of 50 neonates, with 25 in the study group and 25 in the control group. More than half (52%) of the neonates in the control group were male, while more than two-thirds (68%) in the study group were female. Only 3.4% of neonates in both the control and study groups had a birth weight below 2.5 kg. Neonatal temperature: measured as axillary temperature of the neonate immediately after birth and at 1 hour after birth.
Breastfeeding initiation: measured as the time in minutes from birth until the first breastfeeding.
This involved placing the naked newborn on the mother’s bare chest, covering them both with a warm blanket, and allowing them to remain in this position for at least 30 minutes. The control group did not receive any skin-to-skin contact and the newborn was immediately dressed and placed in a cot.
Article #1: Mohamed and Aboelmagd (2020) investigated whether skin-to-skin contact duration after cesarean section affects breastfeeding outcomes. The research design was cross-sectional, and data was collected from 70 people of different ages and educational levels. The study measured the relationship between the practice of early skin-to-skin contact and two primary outcomes: the initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour after birth and the neonate’s physiological parameters. The intervention was early skin-to-skin contact after birth.
Article #2: Alebachew Bayih et al. (2019) aimed to identify the factors associated with neonatal hypothermia within six hours of delivery in Ethiopia. The research design was cross-sectional, and the study involved 403 mothers. The study measures the presence or absence of hypothermia, defined as axillary temperature less than 36.5°C. The study did not involve any intervention or treatment.
Article #3: Safari et al. (2018) evaluated how skin-to-skin contact impacts the initiation of breastfeeding, newborn body temperature, and the length of the third stage of labor. A quasi-experimental study was conducted, and 108 mothers were randomized into two groups: an intervention group of 56 mothers and a control group of 52 mothers. The intervention was the early mother and newborn skin-to-skin contact after birth, practiced by the intervention group, while the control group did not receive SSC.
Article #4: Juan et al. (2022) investigated the association between skin-to-skin contact duration after cesarean section and breastfeeding outcomes. The study design was a retrospective cohort study, and the study involved 697 women who underwent cesarean section. The intervention was early skin-to-skin contact after birth.