Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disorder that affects a significant portion of the adult population worldwide. The global prevalence of diabetes has been steadily increasing, with an estimated 463 million adults living with the disease in 2019 (International Diabetes Federation, 2019). T2D accounts for approximately 90% of all diabetes cases and is characterized by insulin resistance and progressive decline in beta cell function, leading to hyperglycemia and associated complications (American Diabetes Association, 2021). Improving diabetes management and outcomes is crucial to reducing the disease burden and enhancing the quality of life for individuals living with T2D.
Global Burden of Disease Condition: Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas fails to produce sufficient insulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels. Common signs and symptoms of T2D include increased thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, fatigue, and slow-healing wounds (American Diabetes Association, 2021). Diagnosis typically involves a combination of fasting plasma glucose tests, oral glucose tolerance tests, and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) measurements. Treatment for T2D includes lifestyle modifications, such as diet and exercise, along with pharmacological interventions like oral antidiabetic agents and insulin therapy, depending on the severity and progression of the disease (Davies et al., 2018).
Technology and Healthcare
The integration of technology in healthcare has revolutionized the way we diagnose, treat, and manage various health conditions, including T2D. In the adult population with T2D, technology plays a crucial role in improving glycemic control, reducing complications, and enhancing patient engagement in self-management (Sim et al., 2019). Continuous glucose monitoring systems, telemedicine platforms, and mobile health applications are examples of technologies that offer personalized diabetes care and improved health outcomes.
Chosen Evidence-Based Technology: Artificial Pancreas Systems
Artificial pancreas systems (APS), also known as closed-loop systems, are a promising evidence-based technology for improving T2D management in adults. APS combines continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) with an insulin pump and a control algorithm to automatically adjust insulin delivery based on real-time glucose readings (Kovatchev, 2019). Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of APS in improving glycemic control, reducing hypoglycemia, and decreasing the burden of diabetes management for adults with T2D (Bally et al., 2018; Breton et al., 2020).
Advantages of APS include its ability to provide automated insulin delivery, mimicking the function of a healthy pancreas. This technology helps maintain blood glucose levels within the target range, reducing the risk of complications associated with hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. Additionally, APS alleviates the burden of frequent insulin adjustments and glucose monitoring, improving the quality of life for individuals with T2D (Kovatchev, 2019).
However, there are also challenges associated with APS use. The high cost of the system may limit accessibility for some patients, and the need for proper training and education to ensure correct usage and troubleshooting can be a barrier (Sim et al., 2019). Moreover, the long-term efficacy and safety of APS in real-world settings require further investigation.
Conclusion
The global burden of type 2 diabetes in the adult population necessitates innovative approaches to improve disease management and patient outcomes. The integration of technology, such as artificial pancreas systems, offers a promising avenue for enhancing diabetes care. By automating insulin delivery and optimizing glycemic control, APS has the potential to reduce complications, improve quality of life, and alleviate the burden of diabetes management for adults with T2D. As technology advances, it is crucial to invest in research and development efforts to make these innovative solutions more accessible, affordable, and user-friendly, ultimately transforming the landscape of diabetes care.
References:

American Diabetes Association. (2021). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2021. Diabetes Care, 44(Supplement 1), S1-S232. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc21-Sint
Bally, L., Thabit, H., Kojzar, H., Mader, J. K., Qerimi-Hyseni, J., Hartnell, S., Tauschmann, M., Allen, J. M., Wilinska, M. E., Pieber, T. R., Evans, M. L., & Hovorka, R. (2018). Day-and-night glycaemic control with closed-loop insulin delivery versus conventional insulin pump therapy in free-living adults with well controlled type 1 diabetes: an open-label, randomised, crossover study. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 6(4), 261-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30372-7
Breton, M. D., Kanapka, L. G., Beck, R. W., Ekhlaspour, L., Forlenza, G. P., Cengiz, E., Schoelwer, M., Ruedy, K. J., Jost, E., Carria, L., Emory, E., Hsu, L. J., Oliveri, M., Kollman, C., & Cherñavvsky, D. R. (2020). A Randomized Trial of Closed-Loop Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(9), 836-845. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2004736
Davies, M. J., D’Alessio, D. A., Fradkin, J., Kernan, W. N., Mathieu, C., Mingrone, G., Rossing, P., Tsapas, A., Wexler, D. J., & Buse, J. B. (2018). Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia, 61(12), 2461-2498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-018-4729-5
International Diabetes Federation. (2019). IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn. Brussels, Belgium. Available at: https://www.diabetesatlas.org
Kovatchev, B. (2019). A Century of Diabetes Technology: Signals, Models, and Artificial Pancreas Control. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 30(7), 432-444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2019.04.008
Sim, L. L. W., Ban, K. H. K., Tan, T. W., Sethi, S. K., & Loh, T. P. (2019). Development of a clinical decision support system for diabetes care: A pilot study. PLOS ONE, 14(2), e0213015. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213015

NUR6400 Role Development in Family Practice: Clinical Integration
Signature Assignment
Understanding the role technology plays in advanced primary care to vulnerable populations is vital to ensure proper and timely diagnosis and treatment to improve healthcare outcomes for the patient. The purpose of this assignment is to evaluate one global burden of disease OR risk factor in the family population (pediatric, adult, or geriatric) and explore one current evidence-based technology use that can offer improvement of outcomes and access to the population chosen.
This assignment will focus on the following course student learning outcomes (CSLO):
1. Generate knowledge from clinical practice to improve practice and patient outcomes (EOPSLO# 4, 9).
2. Leads practice inquiry, individually or in partnership with others (EOPSLO# 2, 3, 4, 7).
3. Translates research and other forms of knowledge to improve practice processes and outcomes (EOPSLO# 9).
4. Evaluate the relationships among access, cost, quality, and safety and their influence on healthcare (EOPSLO# 3, 6, 9).
5. Collaborates in planning for transitions across the continuum of care (EOPSLO# 2, 7).
6. Integrates ethical principles in decision-making (EOPSLO# 6, 9).
7. Integrates appropriate technologies for knowledge management to improve healthcare (EOPSLO# 5).
8. Evaluate the effectiveness of the plan of care for the family, as well as the individual, and implement changes (EOPSLO# 8).

Instructions: Please choose one global burden of disease and one population (adult, pediatric, or geriatric). Once the population is chosen, find one evidence-based technology to help support the improvement of outcomes in the global burden of disease chosen.
You are to write a three-to-five-page paper in APA format 7th edition with the following sections and level 2 headings:

My Theme is Artificial pancreas systems ( closed- loop System) in diabetes type 2
Introduction:
Brief overview of the health of the population chosen
-Introduce the global burden of disease OR risk factor chosen
-Importance of improving the condition and its impact on quality of life
Body of the Paper
Global Burden of Disease Condition/Risk Factor
-Describe the disease OR risk factor chosen
-What signs/symptoms are identified in the patient that can be found?
-How is it diagnosed and treated?
Technology and Healthcare
-Describe the paradigm shift in healthcare related to technology
-Elaborate how technology can improve health outcomes in your population
Chosen Evidence-Based Technology Use in Disease or Risk Factor
-Describe and summarize the evidence-based technology identified that has been shown to improve the condition or Risk Factor for your patient population chosen.
-Compare and contrast the positives and negatives of using this technology use chosen.
Conclusion
-Recap points discussed in the paper
-Importance of advancements in technology

Optional Resources:
https://www.thelancet.com/gbd/summaries
https://www.healthdata.org/research-analysis/library/what-global-burden-disease-

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