Positive and negative reinforcement Instructions
Behavior analysts work to change an individual’s socially significant behaviors in meaningful ways. As the conceptually systematic dimension states, basic principles of behavior are used to change behaviors. The first basic principle we explore is reinforcement. Reinforcement is used to increase appropriate behaviors in an individual’s repertoire. Behavior analysts not only work to decrease problematic behaviors, but they also work to increase appropriate behaviors. Understanding how reinforcement works is important for adding new behaviors to an individual’s repertoire. For this assignment, complete the following:
* Define both positive and negative reinforcement. Be sure to explain how they are similar and how they are different in your definitions.
* Provide two real-world, detailed examples of how positive reinforcement could be used to increase behaviors you would like to see occur more often. Also, provide two examples of how negative reinforcement could be used to increase behaviors you would like to see occur more often. For example, an individual may use positive reinforcement to increase the behavior of working out. She could pay herself 10 dollars after five consecutive days of working out. Another individual may use negative reinforcement to increase the behavior of cooking healthy meals. If her dinner meals include at least two different vegetables, she can skip doing the dishes immediately after eating. * Be sure to label the three-term contingency in your examples.
* Be sure to explain why the examples you chose will work to increase behavior in the future.
Positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement are two types of reinforcement that are used to increase behavior.
Positive reinforcement is the process of adding a desirable stimulus to increase the likelihood of a behavior being repeated in the future. For example, an individual may receive praise or a reward after completing a task, which will increase the likelihood of that task being repeated in the future.
Negative reinforcement, on the other hand, involves removing an aversive stimulus to increase the likelihood of a behavior being repeated in the future. For example, if someone wears gloves when working with a cold object, they will learn to wear gloves more often because it removes the discomfort associated with the cold object.
Real-world examples of positive reinforcement include:
A child receives praise and a gold star on a chart for completing their homework every day for a week.
Antecedent: Starting homework
Behavior: Completing homework
Consequence: Praise and a gold star
An employee receives a bonus for meeting their sales quota for the month.
Antecedent: Meeting sales quota
Behavior: Selling a certain amount of products
Real-world examples of negative reinforcement include:
An individual avoids doing the dishes if they eat healthy meals
Antecedent: Eating healthy meals
Behavior: Avoiding doing the dishes
Consequence: Not having to do the dishes
Someone wears gloves to avoid the discomfort of working with a cold object
Antecedent: Working with a cold object
Behavior: Wearing gloves
Consequence: Removal of discomfort from cold object
The examples of positive and negative reinforcement work to increase behavior in the future because they provide consequences that increase the likelihood of the behavior being repeated. In the case of positive reinforcement, the individual is provided with a desirable stimulus, which increases the likelihood of the behavior being repeated in the future. In the case of negative reinforcement, the individual experiences a reduction in an aversive stimulus, which also increases the likelihood of the behavior being repeated in the future.