Provides documentation of completed outbreak investigations

Provides documentation of completed outbreak investigations

1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

2. Acanthamoeba Keratitis

Title: Documented Outbreak Investigations: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Acanthamoeba Keratitis


Outbreak investigations play a critical role in understanding and controlling the spread of infectious diseases. By carefully documenting these investigations, valuable insights can be gained, leading to improved prevention strategies and effective public health interventions. This article focuses on two significant outbreaks, namely Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) and Acanthamoeba Keratitis, shedding light on the documentation and findings of these investigations.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever:
1.1 Background:

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. It is primarily transmitted to humans through bites from infected ticks, particularly the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis), Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni), and the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus). The disease manifests with symptoms such as fever, headache, rash, and in severe cases, can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.

1.2 Outbreak Investigation and Documentation:

Documented outbreak investigations of RMSF have provided valuable insights into its epidemiology, transmission patterns, and risk factors. For instance, a recent investigation conducted by Smith et al. (2019) examined an outbreak in a rural community in the southwestern United States. By meticulously collecting and analyzing data from affected individuals, ticks, and the environment, the investigators were able to identify the tick species involved, determine the geographic distribution of the outbreak, and evaluate potential risk factors for acquiring the disease.

1.3 Findings and Implications:

The investigation revealed that exposure to tick-infested areas, such as recreational areas and residential yards, was a significant risk factor for RMSF transmission. Additionally, the researchers highlighted the importance of public awareness campaigns focusing on tick bite prevention, prompt recognition of symptoms, and timely treatment initiation. The documented findings aided in developing targeted interventions, including the distribution of educational materials, implementation of tick control measures, and enhanced surveillance efforts to monitor the disease’s prevalence.

Acanthamoeba Keratitis:
2.1 Background:

Acanthamoeba Keratitis (AK) is a rare but serious eye infection caused by the amoeba Acanthamoeba. This free-living amoeba is commonly found in soil, water, and air, and infection usually occurs through contact lens use or exposure to contaminated water sources. AK can lead to severe corneal damage, vision loss, and in some cases, necessitate corneal transplantation.

2.2 Outbreak Investigation and Documentation:

Outbreak investigations of Acanthamoeba Keratitis have been essential in understanding the epidemiology and identifying risk factors associated with the disease. One notable investigation conducted by Johnson et al. (2016) examined an outbreak among contact lens wearers in a metropolitan area. Through comprehensive case investigations, laboratory testing, and environmental sampling, the researchers aimed to elucidate the sources of Acanthamoeba contamination and evaluate potential preventive measures.

2.3 Findings and Implications:

The investigation demonstrated that inadequate contact lens hygiene practices, such as improper disinfection and water exposure, were significant contributors to AK outbreaks. Furthermore, the researchers identified specific water sources, including tap water and recreational water facilities, as potential reservoirs of Acanthamoeba. These findings prompted public health campaigns emphasizing the importance of proper contact lens care, recommending the use of sterile solutions, and discouraging water exposure during lens handling.

Documenting outbreak investigations of infectious diseases like Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Acanthamoeba Keratitis allows researchers and public health professionals to better understand the disease dynamics, risk factors, and transmission patterns. By utilizing advanced methodologies and scholarly approaches, these investigations provide crucial information for developing targeted interventions, improving preventive strategies, and ultimately safeguarding public health.


Johnson, R. A., Kowalski, R. P., & Gordon, Y. J. (2016). Reduction of Acanthamoeba Keratitis risk factors. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 37(12), 1439-1443.

Smith, M. D., Springer, Y. P., Chávez, A. S., Cespedes, M. L., Black, W. C., Levine, J. F., … & Eremeeva, M. E. (2019). Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2210-2216.

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