Robert Sternberg and Howard Gardner argued that
Robert Sternberg and Howard Gardner argued that, as a society, we need to expand our measure of intelligence beyond traditional tests. Describe the way each explains intelligence. Then explain how ideas presented by Sternberg and Gardner have changed school environments.
Robert Sternberg and Howard Gardner are two prominent psychologists who have challenged the traditional view of intelligence as being solely related to cognitive abilities measured by standardized tests. Both Sternberg and Gardner argue that intelligence is a complex and multifaceted construct that cannot be adequately captured by traditional intelligence tests.
Sternberg’s theory of intelligence, called the Triarchic theory, proposes that intelligence is composed of three components: analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence. Analytical intelligence is the ability to analyze and solve problems using logical reasoning. Creative intelligence is the ability to generate novel and innovative ideas, and practical intelligence is the ability to apply knowledge to real-world situations.
On the other hand, Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences proposes that intelligence is not a single, unitary concept, but rather a set of separate and distinct abilities or intelligences. Gardner identified eight different intelligences, including linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic intelligence.
Both Sternberg and Gardner’s theories have had a significant impact on education, leading to a shift away from a narrow focus on traditional intelligence tests and towards a more holistic approach that recognizes the diverse range of abilities and talents that students possess.
In particular, educators have begun to incorporate a variety of teaching methods and strategies that cater to different intelligences and learning styles. For example, teachers may use music or movement to teach concepts to students who excel in musical or bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, while also providing opportunities for students to work collaboratively and develop interpersonal intelligence.
Furthermore, educators have begun to recognize the importance of cultivating creativity and practical problem-solving skills in addition to analytical abilities. This shift towards a more comprehensive view of intelligence has helped to promote more inclusive and diverse learning environments that value and celebrate the unique strengths and abilities of each student.