Singelis, Triandis, Bhawuk, and Gelfand differentiated between horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. In subsequent studies other researchers have compared many cultures on this construct. For this assignment, identify two nations that you believe to differ on this construct. Write My Essay | Papers Writing Service Online by Essay Hub Experts- Describe how the two nations represent the two sides of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. What are the defining characteristics?

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The concepts of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism, as proposed by Singelis, Triandis, Bhawuk, and Gelfand, highlight different dimensions of cultural variation. Horizontal individualism emphasizes independence and self-expression, while vertical individualism emphasizes personal success and achievement within a hierarchical structure. On the other hand, horizontal collectivism emphasizes cooperation, egalitarianism, and the welfare of the group, while vertical collectivism emphasizes loyalty, obedience, and respect for authority within a hierarchical structure.

Based on these concepts, two nations that exemplify different sides of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism are the United States and Japan.

United States:
The United States is often considered an example of horizontal individualism. In American society, individual freedom, personal rights, and self-expression are highly valued. The focus is on individual achievement, personal success, and the pursuit of happiness. American culture encourages people to be assertive, independent, and to stand out from the crowd. There is an emphasis on personal rights, individual opinions, and personal goals, with less concern for strict social hierarchies.

Japan:
Japan, on the other hand, represents an example of vertical collectivism. Japanese society places a strong emphasis on group harmony, conformity, and loyalty. There is a hierarchical structure and a focus on social roles and obligations. Japanese culture values interdependence, cooperation, and the well-being of the group. Individuals are expected to prioritize the needs of the group over personal desires, and there is a strong emphasis on social harmony and maintaining face.

In summary, the United States represents horizontal individualism, emphasizing independence and personal achievement, while Japan represents vertical collectivism, emphasizing group harmony and social roles. These differences are reflected in various aspects of society, including social interactions, decision-making processes, and the value placed on individual versus collective goals.

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