Introduction to Sustainable Materials in the Construction Industry
Introduction
The construction industry has a significant environmental impact due to the large amounts of raw materials consumed and waste generated during building projects (Flower & Sanjayan, 2007). As such, there is a growing need to adopt more sustainable practices and materials. This report aims to analyze recent scholarly literature on sustainable alternatives to traditional construction materials that can help reduce the industry’s carbon footprint. Specifically, it will discuss the use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as fly ash and slag, as partial cement replacements in concrete.
Findings
Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Concrete
A substantial body of research has explored using SCMs to enhance the properties and sustainability of concrete. Juenger and Siddique (2015) provide a comprehensive review of how SCMs like fly ash, slag, silica fume, and metakaolin can improve workability, strength development, and durability when partially substituting portland cement in concrete mixes. Similarly, Siddique and Klaus (2009) analyze over 100 studies on metakaolin concrete and find it increases compressive strength and reduces permeability compared to plain cement. More recently, Gollakota et al. (2021) propose a conceptual framework for a circular economy in construction using industrial byproducts like fly ash as supplementary binders.
Environmental Benefits of SCM Concrete
The use of SCMs in concrete brings clear environmental advantages. Flower and Sanjayan (2007) estimate that a 10% replacement of cement with fly ash reduces CO2 emissions from concrete production by approximately 8%. Bernal et al. (2012) note alkali-activated slag concrete emits 70-80% less CO2 than ordinary portland cement concrete. Additionally, utilizing waste materials like fly ash avoids the need for landfilling (Castellanos et al., 2017). Gao et al. (2017) also found nano-silica and fly ash improved the abrasion resistance and reduced drying shrinkage of concrete, extending service life.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the literature strongly supports the use of SCMs like fly ash, slag, and metakaolin as viable, sustainable alternatives to partial amounts of portland cement in concrete. Not only do these industrial byproducts enhance engineering properties, but their incorporation leads to significant reductions in the environmental impacts of concrete production by decreasing CO2 emissions and diverting waste from landfills. Further optimization of SCM concrete mixes could help advance the construction industry toward more circular economy and sustainable practices.
References
Bernal, S. A., Mejía de Gutiérrez, R., & Provis, J. L. (2012). Engineering and durability properties of concretes based on alkali-activated granulated blast furnace slag/metakaolin blends. Construction and Building Materials, 35, 599-608. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.003
Castellanos, A. G., Mawson, H., Burke, V., & Prabhakar, P. (2017). Fly-ash cenosphere/clay blended composites for impact resistant tiles. Construction and Building Materials, 134, 297-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.12.172
Flower, D. J., & Sanjayan, J. G. (2007). Green house gas emissions due to concrete manufacture. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 12(5), 282-288. https://doi.org/10.1065/lca2007.05.312
Gao, Y., He, B., Li, Y., Tang, J., & Qu, L. (2017). Effects of nano-particles on improvement in wear resistance and drying shrinkage of road fly ash concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 135, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.12.083
Gollakota, A. R. K., Volli, V. R., & Cleary, P. W. (2021). A conceptual framework for a circular economy in construction addressing circular economy. Circular Economy and Sustainability. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43615-021-00029-6
Juenger, M. C. G., & Siddique, R. (2015). Recent advances in understanding the role of supplementary cementitious materials in concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 78, 71-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2015.08.013
Siddique, R., & Klaus, J. (2009). Influence of metakaolin on the properties of mortar and concrete: A review. Applied Clay Science, 43(3-4), 392-400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2008.11.005
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UO Introduction to Construction Management
ASSESSMENT 2:
REPORT
This assessment activity contributes to 50% of the total course grade.
RATIONALE:
The purpose of this assessment is to develop core academic and professional capabilities for both professional and
academicreadingandwriting. Readingisintegraltocommunicationandlearning,especiallyimportantwhen
communicating your learning. As you read, you reflect on current knowledge to pursue further knowledge. As such,
readingforacademicpurposesinvolvesanalysing,interpretingandevaluatingtexts.Thismeansthatyouwillbe
requiredtoreflectonthereadingtodeterminewhatthekeymessagesarethattheauthorisportrayingandtoinfer
theunderlyingmessage.Itisimportanttodeterminethevalidityandcredibilityoftheinformationtheauthoruses
to persuade or influence the reader. This is what it means to select scholarly sources. Similarly when writing, you will
carefully select and use information to persuade your readers. Written communication involves developing,
expressing and sequencing ideas in a logical way and in an acceptable format, which forthis assessment, will be an
analytical report.
There are two parts to this assessment:
Part A: Reading Journal: 3 reflections on 3 scholarly sources in preparation for writing a report (Part B)
Part B: Analytical Report – drawing on your research to write an analytical response to a vision statement.
COURSE OBJECTIVES:
– CO1. College Superior Papers Dissertation Writing: University Superior Essays Online Coursework Writers – Outline the history, characteristics and external environment of the construction industry.
– CO2. Identify the key principles of sustainable development and the role of sustainable construction.
– CO3.Distinguishandexplaintheroles andinteractions of sectors,professions,business entities,
regulatoryand advisory bodies involved in the industry.
– CO4.Write My Essay | Papers Writing Service Online by Essay Hub Experts- Describethebuildingprocessandexplaintheroles,dutiesandrelationshipsofthemembersofthe
buildingteam.
– CO5.Demonstrateanunderstandingofthekeyelementsofmanagementofconstructionorganisationsand
projects.
ASSESSMENT SUMMARY:
UO Introduction to Construction Management
TASK DESCRIPTION
PART A: READING JOURNAL (20% OF COURSE GRADE)
Introduction
Read and reflect on six scholarly sources to be submitted as anAppendix with your analyticalreport(PartB). A
scholarly source is written by a qualified author who is an expert in their field and has usually been peer-reviewed,
by experts for accuracy and quality. You are to select three academic journal articles from the provided Scholarly
sources list and then select anotherthree Scholarly sources as you read more widely. The information gathered in
these scholarly sources will be used to write theAnalytical Report(PartB).Thus, as you read, select those sources
that provide information relevant to the ‘statement’ written below.
The validity of this statement is what you will use to frame your response for the analytical report.
Vision Statement
There is a need to rethink and improve traditional ways of managing construction projects in order to adopt the
principles of the circular economy.
Reading Journal Entries
You areonly required to submitthree reading journal entries as anAppendix with your analyticalreport. In each
reflection you will need to include full citation details for the source that you have read, and address the
following questions:
a) WhathaveIjustread?[Yourresponsetothisquestionistoincludethefullcitationdetailsforthesourceyou
haveread,withthesameinformationandformattingasthecitationincludedintheReferencelistofyour
report.]
b) What were the key points?
c) How do they relate to my selected report topic?
d) What points may be useful to include in my report?
e) What questions does this reading raise for me to pursue further?
f) How do my own experiences or observations relate to this reading?
Please refer to the reading journal template here.
Formative Reading Journal Entry
To assist you in developing your reading journaling skills you can participate in an activity that allows you to submit a
formativereadingjournalentrytoadiscussionforum.Youcansubmityourformativereadingjournalentry
anytime from Week 1 up until Week 9. You will also be able to receive some feedback from the online tutor.Please
also use this opportunity to learn from your peers.
UO Introduction to Construction Management
SCHOLARLY SOURCES LIST
Use and acknowledge appropriately three of the scholarly/academic journal articles listed below.Please note that
thelinkstotheaboveacademicjournalarticleshavenotbeenprovidedtoallowyoutopracticelocatingarticles.
The UniSA Library has created a Construction Management, Quantity and Building Surveying website to help you
get started and to find the below scholarly/academic journal articles.
1. Charef,R., Morel, J.-C.,&Rakhshan,K.(2021).Barriers toImplementingtheCircularEconomy in the
ConstructionIndustry:ACriticalReview.Sustainability.,13(23).https://doi.org/10.3390/su132312989
2. Guerra,B.C.,Shahi,S.,Mollaei,A.,Skaf,N.,Weber,O.,Leite,F.,&Haas,C.(2021).Circulareconomy
applications in the construction industry:A global scan of trends and opportunities. Journal of Cleaner
Production., 324.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.129125
3. Hossain, M. U., Ng,S. T.,Antwi-Afari,P.,&Amor,B.(2020). Circular economy and the construction industry:
Existingtrends,challengesandprospectiveframeworkforsustainableconstruction.Renewable&Sustainable
Energy Reviews, 130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2020.109948
4. Charef, R., Lu, W., & Hall, D. (2022). The transition to the circular economy of the construction industry:
Insights into sustainable approaches to improve the understanding. Journal of Cleaner Production.,
364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.132421
5. Yu,Y.,Junjan,V.,Yazan,D.M.,&Iacob,M.-E.(2022).AsystematicliteraturereviewonCircularEconomy
implementationintheconstructionindustry:apolicy-makingperspective.Resources,Conservation,and
Recycling, 183.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2022.106359
6. Yu, Y., Yazan, D. M., Bhochhibhoya, S., & Volker, L. (2021). Towards Circular Economy through
Industrial Symbiosis in the Dutch construction industry: A case of recycled concrete aggregates.
JournalofCleaner Production., 293.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.126083
7. Nodehi,M.,&Taghvaee,V.M.(2022).ApplyingCircularEconomytoConstructionIndustrythroughUseof
WasteMaterials:AReviewofSupplementaryCementitiousMaterials,Plastics,andCeramics.Circular
Economy and Sustainability, 2(3), 987–1020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43615-022-00149-x
8. Dewagoda,K.G.,Ng,S.T.,&Chen,J.(2022).Drivingsystematiccirculareconomyimplementationinthe
constructionindustry:Aconstructionvaluechainperspective.JournalofCleanerProduction.,381.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.135197
9. Charef, R.,&Lu,W.(2021). Factor dynamics to facilitate circular economy adoption in construction. Journal of
Cleaner Production., 319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.128639
10. Nasir,M.H.A.,Genovese,A.,Acquaye,A.A.,Koh,S.,&Yamoah,F.(2017).Comparinglinearandcircular
supply chains:Acase study from the construction industry. International Journal ofProductionEconomics,
183, 443– 457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2016.06.008
FINDING OTHER SCHOLARLY/ACADEMIC JOURNAL ARTICLES FOR YOUR ANALYTICAL REPORT
You will also need to find another three scholarly/academic journal articles to assist you in writing your Analytical
Report.TheUniSALibraryhascreatedaninteractivetutorialtohelpyouinfindingscholarlysources.
UO Introduction to Construction Management
PART B: ANALYTICAL REPORT (30% OF COURSE GRADE)
InPartBofAssessment2,youneedtowriteananalyticalreportthatdiscussesthevalidityofthestatementbelow.
Youranalyticalreport must be well informed, with reference to the sixscholarly sources selected.
Vision
There is a need to rethink and improve traditional ways of managing construction projects in order to adopt
the principles of the circular economy.
ANALYTICAL SKILLS
In the building and construction sector, you will be required to critically analyse information. Decisions made based
ontheanalysisoftheinformationcouldmakeadifferencebetweenamoresuccessfulorlesssuccessfulproject
outcome. This analytical report will help give you the skills for professional life.
Analyticalwritingisusedtoshowrelationshipsbetweenpiecesofinformation.Itisusedtocompare,assessor
evaluate (for example, several approaches, theories, methodologies or outcomes). It has a structure based on the
ordering of sections in the findings/discussion in relation to each other and uses evidence from various sources. The
terms are explainedbelow:
Analysis: examine closely; examine something in terms of its parts and how they are related to each other.
Findings/discussion: consideringandofferingsomeinterpretationorevaluationofsomething;presentandgivea
judgment on the value of arguments for and against something (compare).
Report: clearly structure a document to present information about an investigation that has been undertaken. The
clearstructureallowsspecificpartsofthatinformationtobeeasilylocatedbythereader.Youwillneedtofollowthe
provided structure for your report.
UO Introduction to Construction Management
REPORT STRUCTURE
For this assessment you should structure your report as set out below:
SECTIONS STAGES COMPONENTS AND HEADINGS
Preliminary section:
Provides the context and
background information
Title Page
Table of Contents
Executive Write my essay online – Research paper help service – Summary
Main section of body of the
report: Presents the key aspects
of the report – what was done,
what was found, and what this
means?
Stage 1
Introduces this section
Introduction
Stage 2
Presents the findings and your
analysis of these findings
Mainsectionsorganisedunder
appropriate headings and
subheadings.
(Headingsareusedtoidentify the
aspect
dealt with in each sub-section)
Stage 3
Statestheimplicationofthe
findings andanalysis
Conclusion
Write my essay online – Research paper help service – Summary of main points and
provides a statement of
conclusions.
Supplementary Section:
Contains extra information
Reference List
Appendices
Include the reading journal as an
Appendix
Preliminary section:
TitlePage:Titleofthereport(attentiongrabbingandcoveysthethemeofthereportcontent),preparedfor
(Lecturer’s name); prepared by (Your name, and student ID, course code, date)
Tableof contents:Aseparatepagethatincludesallheadingsandsubheadingsandcorrespondingpagenumbers (the
headings serve as a guidepost for your reader)
Executive Write my essay online – Research paper help service – Summary: A summary of the report that is usually written last. It should be a standalone document and
doesnotrequireheadings,quotesorbulletpoints.Itsummarisesthepurposeandscopeofthereport,typeof
analysis and findings.
Main Section:
Introduction:Contextualisesthereportforthereader.Itexplainsthepurposeofthereport,whatitaimedto
discover and how the information will be represented:
• a general statement about the topic to orient the reader
• a brief overview of the theoretical framework
• a clear thesis statement outlining your position/s on the statement
• an overview of the themes covered in the report
UO Introduction to Construction Management
Findings:
• What did you find out?
• Are there similar or alternate views?
• Draw on your theoretical frame and the literature (your research) to discuss the statement.
• Organise your discussion into sections with headings and subheadings.
Advice:
When researching and writing, it helps to organise your writing into sections. This involves organising
your research into themes. As you do this you will notice that some authors write about similar
viewpoints and others may have contrasting views. Recognising these similarities and differences is
what an analytical researcher does.
It is always beneficial to keep the course objectives in mind. The course objectives are a statement of
the learning goals for this course and thus are inextricably linked to assessment.
Hence, the objectives may assist your thinking when you are gathering your research and organising
your research into ‘themes’ for discussion. This part of the research phase may take some time, but it
is well worth the effort as it will help you to analyse the information you have gathered into clear and
logical sections.
Once you have categorised your information into sections, you then complete the writing for the
sections.
Conclusion: Summarise the report and reiterate your main arguments. Ensure that your conclusion is consistent with
the introduction paragraph. Include a take home message, a clear statement that informs your reader about what all of
this means and why it is important.
Supplementary Section: Reference list (APA Paper Writing Service by Expert Writers Pro Paper Help: Essay Writing Service Paper Writing Service by Essay Pro Paper Help: Essay Writing Service 7) and Appendices (including your reading journal)
Appendices: Including your 3 reading journal entries
FORMATTING AND LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR ASESSMENT 2 (PARTS A AND B)
• FormatPartA:ReadingJournaltotheguidelinesassetoutintheReadingJournalEntryTemplateprovided.
• Format Part B: Analytical Report according to the guidelines as set out in the report structure. Refer here for
a TemplateExample.
• Word counts for assessments do not typically include title pages, bibliographies orreference lists. In-line
citations in the body of the document are included.
• WordCountforPartAis3ReadingJournalsat300wordseach(900wordsintotal)andPartBis1500words
+/- 10%. Word counts for assessments do not include title pages, bibliographies orreference lists. In-line
citations in the body of the document are included.
• Typed, one and a half line spacing, with wide margins approx. 3 cms. It is preferable to use either Arial,
Calibri or Times New Roman.
• Applyappropriatesectionheadingsandsubheadingsandensureconsistentnumberingofsections.
• Keep paragraphs simple – one concept per paragraph.
• Part A and B are to be submitted as one document.
• Use the rubric in theAssessment 2 Resources to better understand how yourwork will be marked.

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