NURS 6521 Advanced Pharmacology Week 2 Essay: Cardiovascular System
Week 2: Cardiovascular System
Alterations of the cardiovascular system can cause serious adverse events and may lead to death when not treated in a timely and safe manner. Unfortunately, many patients with cardiovascular disorders are unaware until complications appear. In clinical settings, patients often present with symptoms of several cardiovascular disorders, making it essential for you, as the advanced practice nurse, to be able to recognize these symptoms and recommend appropriate drug treatment options.
This week, you examine the impact of patient factors that may lead to changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes on patient drug therapy for cardiovascular disorders. NURS 6521 Advanced Pharmacology Week 2 Essay: Cardiovascular System. You also explore ways to improve drug therapy plans for cardiovascular disorders based on patient factors and overall health needs.
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Analyze the influence of patient factors on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes
Analyze the impact of changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes on patient drug therapies
Evaluate drug therapy plans for cardiovascular disorders
Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Chapter 33, “Review of Hemodynamics” (pp. 285–289)
Chapter 37, “Diuretics” (pp. 290–296)
Chapter 38, “Drugs Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System” (pp. 297–307)
Chapter 39, “Calcium Channel Blockers” (pp. 308–312)
Chapter 40, “Vasodilators” (pp. 313–317)
Chapter 41, “Drugs for Hypertension” (pp. 316–324)
Chapter 42, “Drugs for Heart Failure” (pp. 325–336)
Chapter 43, “Antidysrhythmic Drugs” (pp. 337–348)
Chapter 44, “Prophylaxis of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Drugs That Help Normalize Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels” (pp. 349–363)
Chapter 45, “Drugs for Angina Pectoris” (pp. 364–371)
Chapter 46, “Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Drugs” (pp. 372–388)
Meet Dr. Norbert Myslinski as he discusses ACE inhibitors, angiotensin inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics as different categories of hypertension drugs. What potential drugs might be best recommended for patients suffering from hypertension? (8m)
Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
…heart disease remains the No. 1 killer in America; nearly half of all Americans have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoke—some of the leading risk factors for heart disease…
—Murphy et al., 2018
Despite the high mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disorders, improved treatment options do exist that can help address those risk factors that afflict the majority of the population today.
Photo Credit: Getty Images/Science Photo Library RF
As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.
Reference: Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db328.htm
Review the Resources for this module and consider the impact of potential pharmacotherapeutics for cardiovascular disorders introduced in the media piece.
Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.
Select one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.
Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.
Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.
By Day 7 of Week 2
Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:
Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.
Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.
Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.
Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.
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Week 2 Assignment
As an advanced practice nurse, it is important to consider various patient factors that may influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes when making treatment recommendations for patients with cardiovascular disorders. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior factors. These factors may affect how a drug is metabolized, distributed, and excreted by the body, as well as how the drug interacts with target receptors and produces an effect.
For example, if a patient is found to have a genetic variation in a cytochrome P450 enzyme, this may affect their ability to metabolize certain drugs, leading to altered drug clearance and increased risk of toxicity. Similarly, if a patient is older, their renal and liver function may be impaired, which can also affect drug clearance and increase the risk of adverse effects. Gender and ethnicity may also play a role in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, as certain drugs may be metabolized differently or have different efficacy or toxicity profiles in men and women, or in different ethnic groups.
Changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes as a result of these patient factors can impact the recommended drug therapy by altering the dose, frequency, or route of administration needed for the drug to be effective and safe. For example, if a patient has impaired liver function, a drug that is metabolized by the liver may need to be administered at a lower dose or with more frequent monitoring to avoid toxicity. Similarly, if a patient has a genetic variation that affects the metabolism of a drug, an alternative drug that is not metabolized by the same enzyme may need to be considered.
As an advanced practice nurse, it is important to consider these patient factors and the potential impact on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes when developing a drug therapy plan for a patient with a cardiovascular disorder. This includes regularly reviewing the patient’s medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and monitoring for any adverse effects or changes in effectiveness of the drug therapy. In the event of changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, the drug therapy plan may need to be modified or an alternative treatment option may need to be considered in order to improve the patient’s outcome.